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    时间:2014-8-22 浏览次数:9692 作者:真圆阿阇黎 点赞:0




    真圆阿奢黎与高野山静慈园教授




    [推荐]密教硕士毕业论文


      作者:真圆阿阇黎



    空海的肉身入定与现代科学哲学观

     

    高野山大学研究生院文学研究科

      

    密教学

      

    释真圆(李新正)

     

    论文目录

     

    前言            

    一、      空海的肉身入定

    二、      肉身不坏的现代科学哲学假设

    假设1、佛教的修行使我们的物质之身发生转变 

       假设2、修行改变我们身体的组织结构

       假设3、物质的精神化与精神的物质化(肉身不坏、舍利、虹身) 

       假设4、修行建立完整的精神信息能量场

    三、      佛教修行中神通力的意义及现代科学哲学假设

    (一)问题

    (二)经典解释

    (三)六度万行的全息哲学科学观意义

    (四)六神通的现代科学哲学假设

    神足通  天眼通  天耳通  他心通  宿命通  漏尽通

    (五)神通力例子                   

       鸠摩罗什  金刚智  不空  善无畏  一行   

    (六)神通力的现代科学哲学假设  

    四、戒律的全息意义

    五、三密加持的假设

    六、摩诃不可思议现象的假设

    总结                 

     

     

    硕士论文(中文版)

     

    空海入定留身与现代科学哲学观

     

        前言

     

    众所周知空海于804年入唐,从惠果和尚亲受胎藏界金刚界两部大法,空海回归东瀛后即便创立日本真言宗,俗谓东密。


    公元832年(天长9年)11月,空海从高雄山的神护寺迁移到了高野山,而且辟谷专念坐禅修法(1)。834年后的承和元年5月,空海从京都返回高 野山前就对弟子们言“我将永远归山”(2)。同年9月选择好了入定场所。同年11月15日将高野山托付给其弟子真然和尚(3)。次年3月21日寅时预告入定 (4)。入定乃是超越生死而等待于兜率天宫救济众生的弥勒菩萨出世。


    空海于入定前的3月15日,书写了三份遗书《御遗告》(5),然后每日修法四次准备入定。在《御遗告》公布四天后空海为宗派今后的发展最后上京 (6)。《御遗告》是否空海真撰现在存疑很多(7)。在空海和尚入定后,弟子们连续做了49天供养法事,然后将大师连同其坐禅入定的椅子一起用轿子抬到了奥之院,安置在御庙地下丈五见方的石室中。


    随着时间的流逝,真然的孙弟子、东寺的第九代长老观贤和尚,认为有必要确认大师入定之身。观贤第二次奏请醍醐天皇为大师赐予封号,而醍醐天皇梦中也见到了空海和尚,于是准奏谥号“弘法大师”,并赐赠御衣。于是在弘法大师入灭后87年,观贤协同两个弟子持御衣朝拜高野山,他们进入弘法大师的御庙石室中。刚进去什么也看不见,观贤等觉得自己罪孽深重,因此尽力忏悔,一会石室中居然见物。他们看见弘法大师衣服已经破烂,发长甲锐,念珠串线已经朽烂,珠子散落地上。大师依然身体柔软容颜如生。于是他们为大师更替了衣裳,剃发、修甲,重新整饰,然后再次封闭了石室 (8)。


      不论史实中空海肉身不坏确定与否,并不影响本文的思想。


    一、  空海之肉身入定

    弘法大师空海六十三岁入定,至今肉身不坏,每日于奥之院接受信徒的顶礼膜拜。针对空海的入定,历史上很多研究家都有非常完美的解释,但仅仅局限于佛教、密教理论和文字相的阐释。


    《大般若波罗蜜多经卷第五十三——初分辩大乘品第十五之三》云:

    “复次善现,若菩萨摩诃萨修行般若波罗蜜多时,以无所得而为方便。往澹泊路观所弃尸,死经一日或经二日乃至七日,其身膖胀,色变青瘀,臭烂皮穿,青瘀流出”(9) 。

     

    此段经文可见人体在死亡后会腐烂变质,其观点与现代医学的理论完全吻合。


    何故肉身不坏?依据现代医学知识,人体在死亡后,大肠菌群迅速分解细胞组织,然后很快腐烂变质。那么空海以及诸多高僧肉身不坏的事实该如何解释?虽然这是非常简单的问题,但是要阐释清楚却非常困难。或者可以说这是佛徒与一般众生的区别,毕竟肉身不坏与现代医学知识相悖。


    为什么佛教行者的修炼可以达到肉身不坏或者说金刚不坏身?如果不能很好地解释这个问题,佛教的修行多数时候会堕入不可知论。佛法是真理,现代科学哲 学亦有真理成分,如此以真理阐释真理应该是可行的。以前和现代的佛教研究大都倾向于文字相的研究,而借用科学哲学观来阐释佛教理论的研究几乎没有。本来佛 法无文字,为了阐释教理而假借文字以表意。如果我们执着文字相,那么觉悟佛法难于登天。


    弘法大师是否已经成佛?如果已然成佛,那么真言宗中关于弥勒信仰的理念似乎存在着问题。信仰弥勒菩萨乃典型的显教理念,按照密教的“即身成佛”理论,关于弘法大师入定等待弥勒佛降生的信仰显然与之矛盾。然则我们可以将真言宗的弥勒信仰理解为一种方便说教(10)。


    按照佛教的时间概念,过去、现在、未来其实是同一时间点。设若我们接受这种观点,那么密教的“即身成佛”和关于弘法大师的“弥勒信仰”就丝毫不存在 矛盾了。现代物理学知识告诉我们,当物体的运动速度与光速相同时,时间静止;当物体的运动速度超过光速时,时间逆转,亦即回溯(倒退到过去)到过去;如果 物体的运动速度小于光速,时间正向。是否存在超越光速的物质,我们现在不得而知,但人类的思想或者说意念完全可以超越光速,这个问题难以证明,但是可以理 解。同时人类的意念还可以逆向思维,好比我们回忆昨天、前天、过去等。佛家的唯识派之主要观点“三界惟心”,物质实体——色,只是虚幻,如阳焰如空花。人类的“意念”乃是心——精神的主要表现形式之一,由此也可以理解“三时惟心”,即过去、现在、未来因我们的信念而转(11)。


    “空” 亦是一相对概念,暂且不论佛教的空意,就常识而言,空即是无。人体的一个细胞相对整个人身可谓空无,一个个体相对整个人类群体可谓空无,地球相对太阳系可谓空无,太阳系相对于银河系可谓空无,银河系相对于茫茫宇宙可谓空无,即便宇宙中全部星辰集合为一体,但相对于宇宙本身之广袤虚空而言亦可谓空无。


    如果不能用现代科学哲学观解释,则很难理解,毕竟说教与说理大有区别,故必须尝试用现代科学哲学观来解释。


    肉身不坏在佛教经典中如何阐释呢?


    最早的肉身不坏记录为何?我们大约不约而同地认为是禅宗六祖慧能大师。大师七十六岁时圆寂于新洲国恩寺,至今肉身保存完好。


    《禅宗相涉载记》“新兴卢氏,采燋养母,负薪入市闻诵金刚。问,从谁受。曰,蕲州黄梅忍大师劝持云见性成佛。辞母前迈至韶与,刘志略为心友。略姑为 尼,号无尽藏,甞读涅槃。师暂听之,即为说义,尼因问字。师云,字即不识,义即请问。尼曰,字尚不识,易能会义。师曰,诸佛解脱,非关文字。尼异之,号为 行者。居人瞻礼,奉以宝林。咸享中达黄梅,师资道契,乃入碓坊,抱石而舂。经八月,忍俾众述偈,上座神秀以偈书壁,师密令童子书偈于旁。忍呼入室,寄托法 衣曰,古我先师转相付授,岂徒尔哉。捧衣南迈,仪凤改元。正月十五,南海印宗法师为师会众落发,二月八日就法性寺智光律师受戒,即开东山法门。 (信忍并住东山)回宝林,韶守韦据请住大梵。学者逾千,封土为坛,说法其上,录为坛经。先天二年八月三日示寂,葬曹溪,寿七十六,宪宗谥大鉴。塔曰,元和 正真,达磨至师六世,因称六祖。师化韶阳,秀化洛下。南能北秀,自此分宗。四祖甞于九江遥望双峰,见紫云如盖,下有白气,横分六岐。问忍,知之乎?曰,师 当旁出一枝,相踵六世。果出法融阐化金陵,牛头至南阳忠六世,亦号牛头六祖。嵩山普宗立秀为六祖,自称七祖,故杜诗云门求七祖禅。”(见图一)

    图一




    慧能(638~713)唐代僧,又作惠能。中国禅宗第六祖,号六祖大师、大鉴禅师。祖籍范阳(河北),俗姓卢,生于南海新兴(广东)。师又曾舍宅为 国恩寺,先天元年(712),命门人于寺内建立报恩塔。翌年七月,归返国恩寺,八月示寂,世寿七十六。师肉身不坏,迄今仍存,归停曹溪。宪宗时谥号「大鉴 禅师」。宋太宗太平兴国年中(976~983)加谥「真宗禅师」;后由仁宗谥号「普觉禅师」,神宗赐「圆明禅师」之谥号(12)。又据《佛祖历代通载》卷 第十三:


    三十三祖惠能大师示寂。姓卢氏,其先范阳人。父行韬,武德中左官于南海之新州,遂占籍焉。三岁丧父其母守志掬养。及长家贫,师樵采以给。一日负薪至 市中,闻客读金刚经,悚然问客曰,此何法?得于何人?客曰,此名金刚经,得于黄梅忍大师。归告于母以为法寻师直抵黄梅,忍大师一见默识之。后传衣法令隐于 怀集四会之间,仪凤元年正月八日届于南海。


    及返曹溪雨大法雨,一日示众曰,诸善知识各各净心听吾说法,汝等诸人自心是佛,更莫狐疑,外无一物而能建立。皆是本心生万种法,故经云,心生种种法 生,心灭种种法灭。若欲成就种智,须达一相三昧一行三昧。若于一切处而不住相,于诸法中不生憎爱,亦无取舍,不念利益成坏等事,安闲恬静虚融淡泊,此名一 相三昧。若于一切处行住坐卧纯一直心,不动道场即成净土,名一行三昧。若人具二三昧,如地有种能含藏长养成就其实,一相一行亦复如是。我今说法犹如时雨普 润大地,汝等佛性譬如种子遇兹沾洽悉得发生承吾言者决获菩提,依吾行者定证妙果。


    师说法度人,往来学者尝逾千数。明年七月辞归新州故宅国恩寺,其徒泣曰,师归当复来不。师曰,叶落归根来时无口。又问,师之法眼何人传受?师曰,有 道者得无心者通。至国恩寺,以八月三日示众曰,吾受忍大师衣法,今为汝等说法不付其衣,盖汝等信根已熟决定无疑,堪任大事,听吾偈曰:心地含诸种,普雨悉 皆萌,顿悟花情已,菩提果自成。


    复谓众曰,其法无二,其心亦然,其道清净亦无诸相。汝等不用观静及空其心,此心本净无可取舍各自努力随缘好去,吾涅槃时至珍重。即跏趺而逝,于是山林变白鸟兽哀鸣,彩云香雾连日不开。既时广州都督韦据率韶新二郡官吏,迎奉全身归于曹溪宝林寺建塔,真身今尚存焉


    最早关于灭尽定的记载当属佛陀的大弟子大迦叶,《五灯会元》卷一中记载道:

    一祖摩诃迦叶尊者,摩竭陀国人也。姓婆罗门,父饮泽,母香志。昔为锻金师,善明金性,使其柔伏。付法传云:尝于久远劫中,毗婆尸佛入涅槃后,四众起 塔,塔中像面金色有缺坏。时有贫女,将金珠往金师所,请饰佛面。既而因共发愿:愿我二人为无姻夫妻。由是因缘,九十一劫身皆金色,后生梵天。天寿尽,生中 天摩竭陀国婆罗门家,名曰迦叶波,此云饮光胜尊,盖以金色为号也。繇是志求出家,冀度诸有。


    佛言:“善来,比丘!”须发自除,袈裟着体,常于众中称叹第一。复言:“吾以清净法眼,将付于汝。汝可流布,无令断绝。”涅槃经云:尔时世尊欲涅槃 时,迦叶不在众会,佛告诸大弟子,迦叶来时,可令宣扬正法眼藏。尔时迦叶在耆阇崛山毕钵罗窟覩胜光明,即入三昧,以净天眼,观见世尊于熙连河侧,入般涅槃。乃告其徒曰:“如来涅槃也,何其驶哉!”即至双树间,悲恋号泣。佛于金棺出示双足。


    尔时迦叶告诸比丘:“佛已荼毗,金刚舍利,非我等事。我等宜当结集法眼,无令断绝。”乃说偈曰:“如来弟子,且莫涅槃,得神通者,当赴结集。”于是 得神通者悉集王舍耆阇崛山毕钵罗窟。时阿难为漏未尽,不得入会,后证阿罗汉果,由是得人。迦叶乃白众言:“此阿难比丘多闻总持,有大智慧,常随如来,梵行 清净。所闻佛法,如水传器,无有遗余。佛所赞叹,聪敏第一。宜可请彼集修多罗藏。”大众默然。


    迦叶告阿难曰:“汝今宜宣法眼。”阿难闻语信受,观察众心而宣偈言:「比丘诸眷属,离佛不庄严。犹如虚空中,众星之无月。”说是偈已,礼众僧足,升法座而宣是言:“如是我闻。一时佛住某处说某经教,乃至人天等作礼奉行。”时迦叶问诸比丘:“阿难所言,不错谬乎?”皆曰:“不异世尊所说。”迦叶乃告阿难言:“我今年不久留,今将正法付嘱于汝。汝善守护,听吾偈言。法法本来法,无法无非法。何于一法中,有法有不法”?”说偈已,乃持僧伽梨衣入鸡足山,俟慈氏下生。即周孝王五年丙辰岁也。


    尊者因外道问:“如何是我我?”者曰:“觅我者是汝我。”外道曰:“这个是我我,师我何在?”者曰:“汝问我觅。”尊者一日踏泥次,有一沙弥见,乃问尊者:“何得自为?”者曰:“我若不为,谁为我为?”(13)


    按照这段历史记载,迦叶尊者付法阿难尊者后旋即入定于鸡足山。迦叶尊者当属佛陀荼毗后首位禅定入寂者,据说此时此刻迦叶尊者还一直于鸡足山禅定并等待弥勒菩萨从兜率天宫降诞成佛。

    从唐代开始至今,华夏大地每隔几年几乎都有比丘或比丘尼圆寂后成就不坏肉身。比如中国传统的地藏菩萨道场九华山就有数十僧尼的不坏肉身至今保存完 好,另有一些则毁于文革中。按照九华山的相关记载依次有金地藏肉身、仁义师太真身、华德真身、隆山、法龙、常恩肉身、明净、大兴、慈明、德风、定慧、圣 传、无瑕和尚等肉身。(九华山官方网站:http://www.fo365.cn/gsgl_list.asp?action=more&c_id=43)。另外除大陆外,台湾等地都有僧尼肉身不坏的记载(14)。


    肉身不坏是否可以看作成佛的标志或者证据?修行法门千万,然而就成就而言,肉身不坏和荼毗产生的舍利的确很能说明问题。然肉身不坏和舍利并不能作为衡量成就的标准,毕竟除佛教徒外的有情也有成就肉身不坏的事实,比如法国修女BERNADETTE(见图二,1977年,美国天主教徒琼卡罗尔克拉斯 Joan Carroll Cruz所著《不腐之身The Incorruptibles》(15)和河北香河县的周凤臣老人。

    图二




    显教须经三大阿僧祗劫方可成佛,密教则是即身成佛。按照密教教理三大阿僧祗劫密法行者一生即可完成,无论在真言典籍还是祖师大德论著中都有详细说明,密法行者当耳熟能详。


    肉身不坏与肉身入定概念是否相同?两者是否有区别?实际上弘法大师以及上述诸例肉身不坏只是入寂而肉身不坏,并不能看作肉身入定。两者应该是有很大区别。


    无论是佛教徒抑或异教徒的肉身不坏,其肉身不坏的形成原理应该相同。按照密教的阐释,一切有情皆是大日如来等流身,区别的只是名相,佛性完全等同。 但如果说肉身不坏就已经成佛,似乎有些牵强难信,毕竟成佛必须具足六神通。严谨地讲,成佛应该分为“理”成佛和 “事”成佛,“事”成佛意味着必须具足六神通(16)。

       

    二、肉身不坏的现代科学哲学假设:

    假设一、佛法的修行可以改变我们的物质肉身结构;

    首先必须明确,如果未按照佛法如法修行,我们的身体依然和所有生命体一样会生老病死。然就“死”设若如法修行,行者的“死”就与其他未修行者的死完 全不同。主要表现在行者尤其是大德高僧圆寂后如果荼毗(火化)会产生舍利(17),甚至有些完全肉身不坏,还有一些会成就所谓“虹身——火光三昧”。 “舍 利”、“肉身不坏”和“虹身”现象均可以充分说明修行改变了行者身体的物质结构,甚至修行亦可带来相貌的改变。这种改变的理论假设将在后面一并阐述。


      “虹身”的概念:“虹身”又曰“虹化”或者“火光三昧”,即行者入灭时,其身化为五彩光明而消散(彩虹)。依照密教六大学说,行者若有成就终当归于地、水、火、风、空、识,识是灵魂的精神表现,实则代表精神信息。故“虹身”可以理解为物质向精神的转化。


    《五灯会元》卷一记载:

    释迦牟尼佛。(贤劫,第四尊。) 姓剎利,父净饭天,母大清净妙位。登补处,生兜率天上,名曰胜善天人,亦名护明大士。度诸天众,说补处行,于十方界中,现身说法。普曜经云:“佛初生剎利王家,放大智光明,照十方世界。地涌金莲华,自然捧双足。东西及南北,各行于七步。分手指天地,作师子吼声。上下及四维,无能尊我者。”即周昭王二十四年 甲寅岁四月八日也。


    至四十二年二月八日,年十九,欲求出家而自念言:“当复何遇?”即于四门游观,见四等事,心有悲喜而作思维,此老、病、死,终可厌离。于是夜子时,有一天人名曰净居,于窗牖中叉手白言:“出家时至,可去矣。”太子闻已,心生欢喜,即逾城而去,于檀特山中修道。


    始于阿蓝迦蓝处三年,学不用处定,知非便舍。复至郁头蓝弗处三年,学非非想定,知非亦舍。又至象头山,同诸外道日食麻麦,经于六年。故经云:“以无心意、无受行,而悉摧伏诸外道。”先历试邪法,示诸方便,发诸异见,令至菩提。


    故普集经云:“菩萨于二月八日,明星出时成道,号天人师,时年三十矣。”即穆王三年癸未岁也。既而于鹿野苑中为憍陈如等五人转四谛法轮而证道果。说 法住世四十九年,后告弟子摩诃迦叶:“吾以清净法眼、涅槃妙心、实相无相、微妙正法,将付于汝,汝当护持。”并敕阿难:“副贰传化,无令断绝。”而说偈 曰: “法本法无法,无法法亦法。今付无法时,法法何曾法?”尔时世尊说此偈已,复告迦叶:“吾将金缕僧伽梨衣传付于汝,转授补处,至慈氏佛出世,勿令朽坏。”迦叶闻偈,头面礼足曰:“善哉!善哉!我当依敕,恭顺佛故。”


    尔时世尊至拘尸那城,告诸大众:“吾今背痛,欲入涅柈。”即往熙连河侧,娑罗双树下,右股累足,泊然宴寂。复从棺起,为母说法。特示双足化婆耆,并说无常偈曰:“诸行无常,是生灭法。生灭灭已,寂灭为乐。”时诸弟子即以香薪竞荼毗之,烬后金棺如故。尔时大众即于佛前,以偈赞曰:“凡俗诸猛炽,何能致火爇,请尊三昧火,阇维金色身。”尔时全棺座而举,高七多罗树,往返空中,化火三昧。须臾灰生,得舍利八斛四斗。即穆王五十二年壬申岁二月十五日也(18)。


        从上述记载看出,释迦牟尼佛祖之荼毗需自身三昧真火,而自然之火不能焚燃。自然之火可以焚烧一切物质但为何不能焚烧世尊金棺?大约我们可以理解为物质之火——自然之火不能焚烧精神之体,因为世尊的物质之身因为修行发生了实质性改变。


    而西天二祖阿难尊者则证风奋迅三昧。


    《五灯会元》卷一记载:

    二祖阿难尊者,王舍城人也。姓剎利帝,父斛饭王,实佛之从弟也。梵语阿难陀,此云庆喜,亦云欢喜。如来成道夜生,因为之名。多闻博达,智慧无碍。世尊以为总持第一,尝所赞叹。加以宿世有大功德,受持法藏,如水传器,佛乃命为侍者。


    尊者一日白佛言:“今日入城,见一奇特事。”佛曰:“见何奇特事?”者曰:“入城时见一攒乐人作舞,出城总见无常。”佛曰:“我昨日入城,亦见一奇特事。”者曰:“未审见何奇特事?”佛曰:“我入城时见一攒乐人作舞,出城时亦见乐人作舞。”


    一日问迦叶曰:“师兄!世尊传金襕袈裟外,别传个甚么?”迦叶召阿难,阿难应诺。迦叶曰:“倒却门前剎竿着!”

    后阿阇世王白言:“仁者!如来、迦叶尊胜二师,皆已涅槃,而我多故,悉不能覩。尊者般涅槃时,愿垂告别。”尊者许之。后自念言:“我身危脆,犹如聚 沫,况复衰老,岂堪久长?阿阇世王与吾有约。”乃诣王宫,告之曰:“吾欲入涅槃,来辞耳。”门者曰:“王寝,不可以闻。”者曰:“俟王觉时,当为我说。”


    时阿阇世王梦中见一宝盖,七宝严饰,千万亿众围绕瞻仰;俄而风雨暴至,吹折其柄,珍宝璎珞,悉坠于地,心甚惊异。既寤,门者具白上事。王闻,失声号恸,哀感天地。即至毗舍离城,见尊者在恒河中流,跏趺而坐。王乃作礼,而说偈曰:“稽首三界尊,弃我而至此,暂凭悲愿力,且莫般涅槃。”时毗舍离王亦在河侧,说偈言:“尊者一何速,而归寂灭场;愿住须臾间,而受于供养。”尊者见二国王咸来劝请,乃说偈言:“二王善严住,勿为苦悲恋。涅槃当我静,而无诸有故。”尊者复念:“我若偏向一国,诸国争竞,无有是处,应以平等度诸有情。遂于恒河中流,将入寂灭。是时山河大地,六种震动,雪山有五百仙人,覩兹瑞应,飞空而至,礼尊者足,胡跪白言:“我于长老,当证佛法,愿垂大慈,度脱我等。”尊者默然受请,即变殑伽河悉为金地,为其仙众说诸大法。


    尊者复念:先所度脱弟子应当来集。须臾,五百罗汉从空而下,为诸仙人出家授具。其仙众中有二罗汉:一名商那和修,二名末田底迦。尊者知是法器,乃告之曰: ‘昔如来以大法眼付大迦叶,迦叶入定而付于我;我今将灭,用传于汝。汝受吾教,当听偈言:本来付有法,付了言无法。各各须自悟,悟了无无法。’”尊者付法眼藏竟,踊身虚空,现十八变入风奋迅三昧。分身四分:一分奉忉利天,一分奉娑竭罗龙宫,一分奉毗舍离王,一分奉阿阇世王。各造宝塔而供养之。乃厉王十二年癸巳岁也(19)。


    依照《五灯会元》卷一中记载,佛陀灭度后渐次西天诸祖多数成就“火光三昧”:

    (1)三祖商那和修尊者,摩突罗国人也。亦名舍那婆斯。姓毗舍多,父林胜,母憍奢耶,在胎六年而生。梵语商诺迦,此云自然服,即西域九枝秀草名也。 若圣人降生,则此草生于净洁之地。和修生时,瑞草斯应。昔如来行化至摩突罗国,见一青林,枝叶茂盛,语阿难曰:“此林地名优留荼,吾灭度后一百年,有比丘 商那和修,于此转妙法轮。”


    后百岁,果诞和修,出家证道,受庆喜尊者法眼,化导有情。及止此林,降二火龙,归顺佛教。龙因施其地,以建梵宫。尊者化缘既久,思付正法。寻于咤利 国,得优波鞠多以为给侍。因问鞠多曰:“汝年几邪?”答曰:“我年十七。”者曰:“汝身十七,性十七邪?”答曰:“师发已白,为发白邪?心白邪?”者曰: “我但发白,非心白耳。”鞠多曰:“我身十七,非性十七也。”尊者知是法器。


    后三载,遂为落发授具。乃告曰:“昔如来以无上法眼付嘱迦叶。辗转相授,而至于我;我今付汝,勿令断绝。汝受吾教,听吾偈言:非法亦非心,无心亦无法。说是心法时,是法非心法。’”说偈已,即隐于罽宾国南象白山中。后于三昧中,见弟子鞠多有五百徒众,常多懈慢。尊者乃往彼,现龙奋迅三昧以调伏之。而说偈曰:“通达非彼此,至圣无长短。汝除轻慢意,疾得阿罗汉。”五百比丘闻偈已,依教奉行,皆获无漏。尊者乃现十八变火光三昧,用焚其身。鞠多收舍利,葬于梵迦罗山。五百比丘各持一幡,迎导至彼,建塔供养。乃宣王二十二年乙未岁也(20)。


    (2)五祖提多迦尊者,摩伽陀国人也。梵语提多迦,此云通真量。初生之时,父梦金日自屋而出,照耀天地。前有大山,诸宝严饰。山顶泉涌,滂沱四流。 后遇鞠多尊者,为解之曰:“宝山者,吾身也。泉涌者,法无尽也。日从屋出者,汝今入道之相也。照耀天地者,汝智慧超越也。”尊者闻师说已,欢喜踊跃,而唱 偈言: “巍巍七宝山,常出智慧泉。回为真法味,能度诸有缘。”鞠多尊者亦说偈曰:“我法传于汝,当现大智慧。金日从屋出,照耀于天地。”提多迦闻师妙偈, 设礼奉持。


    后至中印度,彼国有八千大仙,弥遮迦为首。闻尊者至,率众瞻礼。谓尊者曰:“昔与师同生梵天,我遇阿私陀仙授我仙法,师逢十力弟子,修习禅那,自此 报分殊涂,已经六劫。”者曰:“支离累劫,诚哉不虚。今可舍邪归正,以入佛乘。”弥遮迦曰:“昔阿私陀仙人授我记云:‘汝却后六劫,当遇同学,获无漏 果。’今也相遇,非宿缘邪?愿师慈悲,令我解脱。”者即度出家,命诸圣授戒。其余仙众,始生我慢。尊者示大神通,于是俱发菩提心,一时出家。者乃告弥遮迦曰:“昔如来以大法眼藏密付迦叶,辗转相授,而至于我。我今付汝,当护念之。”乃说偈曰:“通达本法心,无法无非法。悟了同未悟,无心亦无法。”说偈已,踊身虚空作十八变,火光三昧,自焚其躯。弥遮迦与八千比丘同收舍利,于班荼山中起塔供养。即庄王五年己丑岁也(21)。


    (3)六祖弥遮迦尊者,中印度人也。既传法已,游化至北天竺国,见雉堞之上有金色祥云,叹曰:“斯道人气也,必有大士为吾嗣。”乃入城,于阛阓间有 一人手持酒器,逆而问曰:“师何方来?欲往何所?”祖曰:“从自心来,欲往无处。」曰:“识我手中物否?”祖曰:“此是触器而负净者。”曰:“师识我 否?”祖曰: “我即不识,识即非我。”复谓之曰:“汝试自称名氏,吾当后示本因。”彼说偈答曰:“我从无量劫,至于生此国,本姓颇罗堕,名字婆须蜜。”祖 曰:“我师提多迦说,世尊昔游北印度,语阿难言:‘此国中吾灭后三百年,有一圣人姓颇罗堕,名婆须蜜,而于禅祖,当获第七。’世尊记汝,汝应出家。”


    彼乃置器礼师。侧立而言曰:“我思往劫,尝作檀那,献一如来宝座,彼佛记我曰:‘汝于贤劫释迦法中,宣传至教。’今符师说,愿加度脱。”祖 即与披剃,复圆戒相,乃告之曰:“正法眼藏,今付于汝,勿令断绝。”乃说偈曰:“无心无可得,说得不名法。若了心非心,始解心心法。”祖说偈已,入师子奋迅三昧,踊身虚空,高七多罗树,却复本座,化火自焚。婆须蜜收灵骨,贮七宝函,建浮图寘于上级。即襄王十五年甲申岁也(22)。


    (4)十祖胁尊者,中印度人也。本名难生。初将诞时,父梦一白象,背有宝座,座上安一明珠,从门而入,光照四众,既觉遂生。从值九祖,执侍左右,未 尝睡眠,谓其胁不至席,遂号胁尊者焉。初至华氏国,憩一树下。右手指地而告众曰:“此地变金色,当有圣人入会。”言讫,即变金色。时有长者子富那夜奢,合 掌前立。祖问曰:“汝从何来?”荅曰:“我心非往。”祖曰:“汝何处住?”荅曰:“我心非止。”祖曰:“汝不定邪?”曰:“诸佛亦然。”祖曰:“汝非诸 佛。” 曰:“诸佛亦非。”祖因说偈曰:“此地变金色,预知有圣至。当坐菩提树,觉华而成已。”夜奢复说偈曰:“师坐金色地,常说真实义。回光而照我,令入 三摩谛。”


    祖知其意,即度出家,复具戒品,乃告之曰:“如来大法藏,今付于汝,汝护念之。”乃说偈曰:“真体自然真,因真说有理。领得真真法,无行亦无止。”祖付法已,即现神变而入涅槃,化火自焚。四众各以衣祴盛舍利,随处与塔而供养之。即贞王二十七年己亥岁也(23)。

    (5)十三祖迦毗摩罗尊者,华氏国人也。初为外道,有徒三千,通诸异论。后于马鸣尊者得法,领徒至西印度。彼有太子,名云自在。仰尊者名,请于宫中 供养。祖曰:“如来有教,沙门不得亲近国王、大臣权势之家。”太子曰:“今我国城之北,有大山焉。山有一石窟,师可禅寂于此否?”祖曰:“诺。”即入彼 山。行数里,逢一大蟒,祖直前不顾,盘绕祖身,祖因与授三皈依,蟒听讫而去。祖将至石窟,复有一老人素服而出,合掌问讯。祖曰:“汝何所止?”答曰:“我 昔尝为比丘,多乐寂静,有初学比丘数来请益,而我烦于应答,起嗔恨想,命终堕为蟒身,住是窟中,今已千载。适遇尊者,获闻戒法,故来谢尔。”祖问曰:“此 山更有何人居止?”曰:“北去十里,有大树荫覆五百大龙,其树王名龙树,常为龙众说法,我亦听受耳。”祖遂与徒众诣彼,龙树出迎曰:“深山孤寂,龙蟒所 居。大德至尊,何枉神足?”祖曰:“吾非至尊,来访贤者。”龙树默念曰:“此师得决定性明道眼否?是大圣继真乘否?”祖曰:“汝虽心语,我已意知。但办出 家,何虑吾之不圣?”龙树闻已,悔谢。祖即与度脱,及五百龙众俱授具戒。复告之曰:“今以如来大法眼藏,付嘱于汝。谛听偈言:非隐非显法,说是真实际。悟此隐显法,非愚亦非智’”付法已,即现神变,化火焚身。龙树收五色舍利,建塔焉。即赧王四十六年壬辰岁也(24)。


    (6)十五祖迦那提婆尊者,南天竺国人也,姓毗舍罗。初求福业,兼乐辩论。后谒龙树大士。将及门,龙树知是智人,先遣侍者以满钵水置于座前。尊者覩 之,即以一针投之而进,欣然契会。龙树即为说法,不起于座,现月轮相,唯闻其声,不见其形。祖语众曰:“今此瑞者,师现佛性。表说法非声色也。”祖既得 法,后至迦毗罗国。彼有长者,曰梵摩净德。一日,园树生耳如菌,味甚美。唯长者与第二子罗[日候]罗多取而食之。取已随长,尽而复生。自余亲属,皆不能 见。祖知其彬亲属,皆不能见。祖知其宿因,遂至其家。长者乃问其故。祖曰:“汝家昔曾供养一比丘,然此比丘道眼未明,以虚沾信施,故报为木菌。唯汝与子精 诚供养,得以享之,余即否矣。”又问长者:“年多少?”答曰:“七十有九。”祖乃说偈曰:“入道不通理,复身还信施。汝年八十一,此树不生耳。”长者闻偈 已,弥加叹伏。且曰:“弟子衰老,不能事师,愿舍次子,随师出家。”


    祖曰:“昔如来记此子,当第二五百年为大教主。今之相遇,盖符宿因。”即与剃发执侍。至巴连弗城,闻诸外道欲障佛法。计之既久,祖乃执长旛入彼众 中。彼问祖曰:“汝何不前?”祖曰:“汝何不后?”彼曰:“汝似贱人。”祖曰:“汝似良人。”彼曰:“汝解何法?”祖曰:“汝百不解。”彼曰:“我欲得 佛。”祖曰:“我灼然得佛。”彼曰:“汝不合得。”祖曰:“元道我得,汝实不得。”彼曰:“汝既不得,云何言得?”祖曰:“汝有我故,所以不得。我无我 我,故自当得。”彼辞既屈,乃问祖曰:“汝名何等?”祖曰“我名迦那提婆。”彼既夙闻祖名,乃悔过致谢。时众中犹互兴问难,祖折以无碍之辩,由是归伏。乃告上足罗候罗多而付法眼。偈曰:“本对传法人,为说解脱理。于法实无证,无终亦无始。”祖说偈已,入奋迅定,身放八光,而归寂灭。学众兴塔而供养之。即前汉文帝十九年庚辰岁也(25)。


    (7)十八祖伽耶舍多尊者,摩提国人也。姓郁头蓝,父天盖,母方圣。尝梦大神持鉴,因而有娠。凡七日而诞,肌体莹如琉璃,未尝洗沐,自然香洁。幼好 闲静,语非常童。持鉴出游,遇难提尊者。得度后,领徒至大月氏国。见一婆罗门舍有异气,祖将入彼舍,舍主鸠摩罗多问曰:“是何徒众?”祖曰:“是佛弟 子。”彼闻佛号,心神竦然,实时闭户。祖良久扣其门,罗多曰:“此舍无人。”祖曰:“答无者谁?”罗多闻语,知是异人,遽开关延接。


    祖曰:“昔世尊记曰:吾灭后一千年,有大士出现于月氏国,绍隆玄化。”今汝值吾,应斯嘉运。」于是鸠摩罗多发宿命智,投诚出家。授具讫,付法偈曰:“有种有心地,因缘能发萌。于缘不相碍,当生生不生。”祖付法已,踊身虚空,现十八种神变,化火光三昧,自焚其身。众以舍利起塔。当前汉成帝二十年戊申岁也(26)。


    (8)十九祖鸠摩罗多尊者,大月氏国婆罗门之子也。昔为自在天人。(欲界第六天。)见菩萨璎珞,忽起爱心,堕生忉利。(欲界第二天。)闻憍尸迦说般 若波罗蜜多,以法胜故,升于梵天色界。以根利故,善说法要,诸天尊为导师。以继祖时至,遂降月氏。后至中天竺国,有大士名阇夜多,问曰:“我家父母素信三 宝,而常萦疾瘵,凡所营作,皆不如意;而我邻家久为旃陀罗行,而身常勇健,所作和合。彼何幸,而我何辜?”祖曰:“何足疑乎!且善恶之报有三时焉:凡人但 见仁夭暴寿、逆吉义凶,便谓亡因果、虚罪福,殊不知影响相随,毫厘靡忒。纵经百千万劫,亦不磨灭。”时阇夜多闻是语已,顿释所疑。祖曰:“汝虽已信三业, 而未明业从惑生,惑因识有,识依不觉,不觉依心。心本清净,无生灭,无造作,无报应,无胜负,寂寂然,灵灵然。汝若入此法门,可与诸佛同矣。一切善恶、有 为无为,皆如梦幻。”阇夜多承言领旨,即发宿慧,恳求出家。既受具,祖告曰:“吾今寂灭时至,汝当绍行化迹。”乃付法眼,偈曰:“性上本无生,为对求人说。于法既无得,何怀决不决。”又云:“此是妙音如来见性清净之句,汝宜传布后学。”言讫,即于座上,以指爪剺面,如红莲开出,大光明照耀四 众,而入寂灭。阇夜多起塔。当新室十四年壬午岁也(27)。


    (9)二十五祖婆舍斯多尊者,罽宾国人也。姓婆罗门,父寂行,母常安乐。初,母梦得神剑,因而有孕既诞,拳左手。遇师子尊者显发宿因,密授心印。后 适南天,至中印度。彼国王名迦胜,设礼供养。时有外道,号无我尊。先为王礼重,嫉祖之至,欲与论义,幸而胜之,以固其事。乃于王前谓祖曰:“我解默论,不 假言说。”祖曰:“孰知胜负?”彼曰:“不争胜负,但取其义。”祖曰:“汝以何为义?”彼曰:“无心为义。”祖曰:“汝既无心,岂得义乎?”彼曰:“我说 无心,当名非义。”祖曰:“汝说无心,当名非义。我说非心,当义非名。”彼曰:“当义非名,谁能辨义?”祖曰:“汝名非义,此名何名?”彼曰:“为辨非 义,是名无名。”祖曰:“名既非名,义亦非义,辨者是谁,当辨何物?”如是往返五十九番,外道杜九番,外道杜口信伏。


    于时祖忽面北,合掌长吁曰:“我师师子尊者,今日遇难,斯可殇焉。”即辞王南迈,达于南天,潜隐山谷。时彼国王名天德,迎请供养。王有二子:一名德胜,凶暴而色力充盛。一名不如密多,和柔而长婴疾苦。祖乃为陈因果,王即顿释所疑。


    又有呪术师,忌祖之道,乃潜置毒药于饮食中,祖知而食之,彼返受祸,遂投祖出家。祖即与授具。后六十载,德胜即位,覆信外道,致难于祖。不如密多以 进谏被囚。王遽问祖曰:“予国素绝妖讹,师所传者当是何宗?”祖曰:“王国昔来,实无邪法。我所得者,即是佛宗。”王曰:“佛灭已千二百载,师从谁得 邪?”祖曰:“饮光大士,亲受佛印,辗转至二十四世师子尊者,我从彼得。”


    曰: “予闻师子比丘不能免于刑戮,何能传法后人?”祖曰:“我师难未起时,密授我信衣法偈,以显师承。”王曰:“其衣何在?”祖即于囊中出衣示王。 王命焚之,五色相鲜,薪尽如故。王即追悔致礼。师子真嗣既明,乃赦密多。密多遂求出家。祖问曰:“汝欲出家,当为何事?”密多曰:“我若出家,不为其 事。”祖曰:“不为何事?”密多曰:“不为俗事。”祖曰:“当为何事?”密多曰:“当为佛事。”祖曰:“太子智慧天至,必诸圣降迹。”即许出家。


    六年侍奉,后于王宫受具。羯磨之际,大地震动,颇多灵异。祖乃命之曰:“吾已衰朽,安可久留?汝当善护正法眼藏,普济群有。听吾偈曰:‘圣人说知 见,当境无是非。我今悟真性,无道亦无理。’”不如密多闻偈,再启祖曰:“法衣宜可传授。”祖曰:“此衣为难故,假以证明;汝身无难,何假其衣?化被十 方,人自信向。”不如密多闻语,作礼而退。祖现于神变,化三昧火自焚,平地舍利可高一尺。德胜王创浮图而秘之。当东晋明帝太宁三年乙酉岁也(28)。


    (10)二十六祖不如密多尊者,南印度天德王之次子也。既受度得法,至东印度。彼王名坚固,奉外道师长爪梵志。暨尊者将至,王与梵志同覩白气贯于上 下。王曰: “斯何瑞也?”梵志预知祖入境,恐王迁善,乃曰:“此是魔来之兆耳,何瑞之有!”即鸠诸徒众议曰:“不如密多将入都城,谁能挫之?”弟子曰: “我等各有呪术,可以动天地、入水火,何患哉?”祖至,先见宫墙有黑气,乃曰:“小难耳。”直诣王所。王曰:“师来何为?”祖曰:“将度众生。”王曰: “以何法度?”祖曰:“各以其类度之。”时梵志闻言,不胜其怒,即以幻法,化大山于祖顶上。祖指之,忽在彼众头上。梵志等怖惧投祖,祖愍其愚惑,再指之, 化山随灭。

    乃为王演说法要,俾趣真乘。谓王曰:“此国当有圣人而继于我。”


    是时有婆罗门子,年二十许,幼失父母,不知名氏。或自言缨络,故人谓之缨络童子。游行闾里,丐求度日,若常不轻之类。人问:“汝行何急?”即答曰:“汝行何缓?”或曰:“何姓?”乃曰:“与汝同 姓。”莫知其故。


    祖又谓王曰:“此童子非他,即大势至菩萨是也。此圣之后,复出二人:一人化南印度,一人缘在震旦。四五年内,却返此方。”遂以昔因,故名般若多罗。


    后,王与尊者同车而出,见缨络童子稽首于前,祖曰:“汝忆往事否?”童曰:“我念远劫中,与师同居。师演摩诃般若,我转甚深修多罗,今日之事,盖契 昔因。” 祖又谓王曰:“此童子非他,即大势至菩萨是也。此圣之后,复出二人:一人化南印度,一人缘在震旦。四五年内,却返此方。”遂以昔因,故名般若多 罗。付法眼藏,偈曰:“真性心地藏,无头亦无尾。应缘而化物,方便呼为智。”祖付法已,即辞王曰:“吾化缘已终,当归寂灭。愿王于最上乘,无忘外护。”即还本座,跏趺而逝,化火自焚。收舍利塔而瘗之。当东晋孝武帝太元十三年戊子岁也(29)。


    (11)二十七祖般若多罗尊者,东印度人也。既得法已,行化至南印度。彼王名香至,崇奉佛乘,尊重供养,度越伦等,又施无价宝珠。时王有三子:曰月 净多罗,曰功德多罗,曰菩提多罗。其季开士也。祖欲试其所得,乃以所施珠问三王子曰:“此珠圆明,有能及否?”第一王子、第二王子皆曰:“此珠七宝中尊, 固无踰也。非尊者道力,孰能受之?”第三王子曰:“此是世宝,未足为上。于诸宝中,法宝为上。此是世光,未足为上。于诸光中,智光为上。此是世明,未足为 上。于诸明中,心明为上。此珠光明,不能自照,要假智光。光辨于此,既辨此已,即知是珠。既知是珠,即明其宝。若明其宝,宝不自宝。若辨其珠,珠不自珠。 珠不自珠者,要假智珠而辨世珠。宝不自宝者,要假智宝以明法宝。然则师有其道,其宝即现。众生有道,心宝亦然。”


    祖叹其辩慧,乃复问曰:“于诸物中,何物无相?”曰:“于诸物中,不起无相。”又问:“于诸物中,何物最高?”曰:“于诸物中,人我最高。”又问: “于诸物中,何物最大?”曰:“于诸物中,法性最大。”祖知是法嗣,以时尚未至,且默而混之。及香至王厌世,众皆号绝。唯第三子菩提多罗于柩前入定。经七 日而出,乃求出家。既受具戒,祖告曰:“如来以正法眼付大迦叶,如是辗转,乃至于我。我今嘱汝,听吾偈曰:心地生诸种,因事复生理。果满菩提圆,华开世界 起。’”


    尊者付法已,即于座上起立,舒左右手,各放光明二十七道,五色光耀。又踊身虚空,高七多罗树,化火自焚。空中舍利如雨,收以建塔,当宋孝武帝大明元年丁酉岁。祖因东印度国王请,祖斋次,王乃问:“诸人尽转经,唯师为甚不转?”祖曰:“贫道出息不随众缘,入息不居蕴界,常转如是经百千万亿卷,非但一卷两卷。”(30)


    以上西天诸祖圆寂圣相足以说明修行改变了其物质之身的结构,同时也说明物质可以转化为精神。

     


    假设二、修行改变了我们身体的物质结构,而这种改变导致我们的机体不被大肠菌群所破坏分解,或者说我们体内的细菌认同了我们的机体,由于认同而不产生抗原抗体的排异反应。

     

    古代佛教行者修行中有句名言“跳出三界外,不在五行中”。所谓三界简言之就是“贪、嗔、痴”三毒;五行则是儒道之士的哲学名词,五行标示天地万物归 属为 “土、木、水、火、金”。与佛家“地、水、火、风、空”五大类似。换言之就是“跳出三界外,不在五大中”。断“贪嗔痴”三毒必须如法修行,结果即可脱 离三界约束,亦即“跳出三界”。修行锻炼的结果,我们物质之身的“五行”信息结构发生转变,从而脱离“五行规律”的制约。我们物质之身的“五行”结果是通过循序渐进的修证获得的,不可能一蹴而就。需勤行经、律、论三藏,不断闻、思、修,慈悲喜舍六度万行,达到戒、定、慧。至少从理论上可以假定修炼使得物质 之身的五行结构不断趋于平衡圆满,完善的五行场就不会因为外界五行因素的变化而受剧烈互动影响。换言之,行者的身体不受“五行”约束,其全息意义就是“跳 出”了三界。


    真言密法行者每日早中食时作法所诵《虫食偈》云“我身中有八万户,一一各有九亿虫,济彼性命受信施,我成佛时先度汝”。我、众生、如来三三平等,慈 悲喜舍六度万行使得我们身体中比如肠道中的大肠菌群趋于和我们自身的机体细胞“平等”,甚至可以认为这些细菌已经成为我们机体的一部分。有这种慈悲同化, 使得细菌和机体细胞不会发生相互排异的免疫反应,当然除非我们的免疫系统已经严重失调。


    人体内有一个免疫系统,它是人体抵御病原菌侵犯最重要的保卫系统。这个系统由免疫器官(骨髓、胸腺、脾脏、淋巴结、扁桃体、小肠集合淋巴结、阑尾 等)、免疫细胞(淋巴细胞、单核吞噬细胞、中性粒细胞、嗜碱粒细胞、嗜酸粒细胞、肥大细胞、血小板等),以及免疫分子(补体、免疫球蛋白、干扰素、白细胞 介素、肿瘤坏死因子等细胞因子等)组成。免疫系统(immune system)是机体保护自身的防御性结构,主要由淋巴器官(胸腺、淋巴结、脾、扁桃体)、其它器官内的淋巴组织和全身各处的淋巴细胞、抗原抗体细胞等组 成;广义上也包括血液中其它白细胞及结缔组织中的浆细胞和肥大细胞。构成免疫系统的核心成分是淋巴细胞,它使免疫系统具备识别能力和记忆能力。淋巴细胞经 血液和淋巴周游全身,从一处的淋巴器官或淋巴组织至另一处的淋巴器官或淋巴组织,使分散各处的淋巴器官和淋巴组织连成一个功能整体。免疫系统是生物在长期 进化中与各种致病因素的不断斗争中逐渐形成的,在个体发育中也需抗原的刺激才能发育完善。


    简言之,人体免疫系统就是个体识别“非自体物质(通常是外来病菌)”从而将之消灭、排除的整体细胞反应之统称。免疫系统可以从自身组织中辨识外来的非自体物质成分(小到病毒,大到寄生虫)。辨识外来物质的困难之一在于病菌可适应并衍化出新形式而再次感染宿主(31)。


    但是因为个体存在差别如遗传、性别、年龄等,以及个体自身“灵魂”流转中业力的差异,相同的修行产生的结果则必不相同。故并非每一个行者都会出现舍利或者最终肉身不坏。其实遗传基因和“业力”是相同概念的不同表现,即相同因素的物质化表现和精神化表现。


     

    假设三、舍利和肉身不坏、虹化,是物质的精神化和精神的物质化表现;

     

    我们的机体大致可以分成两部分:物质化的肉体与精神化的灵魂。然此两部分整合一体全然不可分割。然物质与精神换言之肉体与灵魂毕竟性质不同,这种一体化整合既然密不可分,理论上则应该可以假设二者之间存在“临界状态”。


    什么是“临界状态”?比如水结冰的时候,零度的时候就是临界状态,由液体变成固体;100度的时候,由水变成了蒸汽,亦是临界状态。临界状态的特性之一就是同时兼具双相物理化学特性。


    在此假定,肉体和灵魂亦即物质与精神两者之间可以互相转化,在发生转化的瞬间、场所即为物质与精神的临界状态。此临界状态并非可以测量的物质化结构,更不能将其简单理解为整体的对分,更不可能是点、线或面,因为在生命体存活状态下,肉体与灵魂是不可分割的。


    依据现代医学,人体有两大调节系统:神经系统和内分泌系统,然传统中医却一直坚持和承认人体存在经络系统,千百年来的中医历史也证明经络系统确实存 在。然现代西方科学家在质疑中医经络理论的时候也犯了物质实证主义的又一个错误,得出结论“经络是微小的晶体”,其实也就是说他们并没有证明经络究竟是什 么。


    经络理论:“经”者有“径”之意,如路径可通达各处,且是直行干线;“络”者具“网”意,是纵横连接之网络、直行干线横出的旁枝。经络可以将人体上 下、前后、内外组织器官机能联络起来,进而或深或浅将五脏(心、肝、脾、肺、肾)、六腑(胆、胃、大肠、小肠、膀胱、三焦)、头面、躯干、四肢等连系起 来,用真气来促进全身细胞的生理作用,实现生命机能,显现生命现象。所言经络,包括十二经脉、奇经八脉、十二经别、十二经筋、十五络以及很多脉络和孙脉络 等总称。


    经络的作用:经络流行气血、、运行于体表经络的卫气可以保障人体健康、抗御疾病侵犯。经络在正常情况下具有抵抗外界致病因子侵入的功能。由于经络全息地将人体内外、上下有机联系了起来,从而保证了内外环境的统一、平衡。


    气通则百脉顺畅,气塞则百病丛生,此乃千古不易的真理。气血的运行完全取决于经络是否畅通。熟悉中医的人都清楚,人体经络虽然不可触摸,却真实存在。现今风行世界的穴位推拿、针灸治疗,都是以此理论为基础的。


    实际上,人体的经络起着调节机体脏腑及体表的功能,经络畅通,气血可运行全身,补充身体各处器官所需能量;经络阻塞,外邪就容易循体表侵入五脏六腑,人体各处的疾病就会慢慢浮现(32)。

    经络示意图(见图三)


    图三


    (中医经络图典 周春才 著 出版社:中国文联出版社  出版日期:2002-10)



     

    十二经脉是构成人体气血运行的主要通路,十五络脉顺着本经之脉回旋,把相互表里的阴经和阳经沟通起来,成为十二经脉在四肢互相转注的纽带,它们参与 十二经整体运行。奇经八脉不属络脏腑,亦无表里配偶,而具特殊功能,故称“奇经八脉”。在经络系统中是以十二经脉为主体的。另外奇经八脉以任督二脉与十二 经脉相提并论,合称为十四经。


    十二经脉的每一经脉各有其所属的脏腑,并以手足三阴三阳和所属脏腑命名,属脏的成为阴经,属腑的称为阳经。


    手三阴经:手太阴肺经、 手少阴心经、手厥阴心包经;

    手三阳经:手阳明大肠经、手太阳小肠经、手少阳三焦经;

    足三阴经:足太阴脾经,足少阴肾经、足厥阴肝经;

    足三阳经:足阳明胃经、足太阳膀胱经、足少阳胆经;


    督脉:行于脊背,诸阳经皆交汇于督脉,总督一身阳经,总督一身阳气,故又称“阳脉之海”;

    任脉:行于胸腹正中线,全身阴经皆会于任脉,总任全身阴气,故又称阴脉之海”。


    人体在正常状态下,经络的功能与作用是有规律的。《黄帝内经》云:“夫十二经脉者,人之所以生,病之所以成,人之所以治,病之所以起,学之所以始, 工之所止也。”如果发生病变,它又能反映出相应的症候,掌握了它的规律,观察它的变化,可做为生理、病理、诊断、治疗等方面辨证施治的依据。


    《黄帝内经》云“经脉者,所以行血气而营阴阳,濡筋骨,利关节者也。(33)” 经络像一个网络系统,将气血输送,遍布全身,并把五脏六腑、四肢关节、筋骨皮肉等联系起来,人体脏腑、四肢、百骸、皮毛、肌肉、血脉等组织与器官,才能够 进行有机的整体活动,主要是气血为人体生命活动的物质基础,必须依赖经络的运行,才能输布全身,以温养濡润全身各脏腑组织器官,维持机体的正常功能。才能 使它们进行正常的生理活动。总的来说,它具有流通气血,营养全身,调节机体功能,增强机体防御外邪的作用。


    在此,我们可以假设经络系统为人体物质和精神的临界状态。如果是临界状态必然表现两种状态的特性,换言之经络系统必须有物质化表现和精神化表现。实际上经络也确实存在如此特点,它可以调节我们的物质之身,同时却难以证明它的物质存在(物质基础)。


    瑜伽术“三脉七轮”也有类似的作用。瑜伽术“明点”与“脉轮”学说产生于于印度的古文明,而且密教又曰三密瑜伽,密教的修行和瑜伽术不无关系。


      人体三脉

    中脉,从海底轮(尾骶骨下端)开始,顺人体的脊椎前向上直通入脑,到顶轮后,向前弯曲,直通两眉之间眉心位置,所以眉心又是各种宇宙能量进入人体的通道。通过修持,将中脉位于顶门处的通口打开,成为宇宙能量进入体内和人体神识冲出人体的最佳通道。


    从生理功能上讲,中脉位于人体脊椎之前并上通入脑,中脉的修持,直接为人体的脊椎和脑的功能得到锻炼和提高。脑和脊椎是人体的神经系统,脑和脊椎管 内的脊髓是人体的中枢神经,脑的表面附有12对脑神经,脊髓两侧又连结31对脊髓神经,并分出内脏神经,三者构成人体的周围神经系统。


    左右二脉通于人体的左右两个鼻孔,上行入脑,夹中脉下行,至平等于脐下四指处的生法宫位置,与中脉会合,其中左脉为水脉,属阴,所以以称太阴脉,右脉为火脉,属阳,以称太阳脉。


      左右二脉位于脊椎前中脉的两侧,从生理功能上讲,二脉与内脏神经的交感神经和副交感神经对应,左脉主管副交感神经,右脉主管交感神经。


    人体三脉,管理人体的全部神经系统,通过瑜伽的修持,就可增强人体系统的功能。


    七轮:由下而上,它们分别是:

    (1) 根轮 (纯真轮 Moodadhara Chakra)

    (2)腹轮 (真知轮 Swadisthan Chakra)

    (3)脐轮 (正道轮 Nabhi 或 Manipura Chakra) 3a 幻海 (Void 或 Ocean of Illusion)

    (4) 心轮 (仁爱轮 Heart 或 Anahata Chakra)

    (5)喉轮 (大同轮 Vishuddhi Chakra)

    (6)额轮 (宽恕轮 Agnya 或 Ajna Chakra)

    (7)顶轮 (自觉轮 Sahasrara Chakra) (34)


    (如图四所示)



    http://www.sahajayoga.org.hk/index.html



    同样瑜珈术中的“三脉七轮”没有得到现代医学科学的证实,我们可以假设为与经络有相同或者类似意义的人体物质与精神的“临界状态”。

     

    如果假设由经络或者瑜伽的三脉七轮是人体物质与精神的临界状态,势必引申出一个假设:因为不能从实验室证明它们存在的物质基础,而实际上它们确实发生着微妙的人体调节功能,那就可以理解为我们的“意念”可以使我们的物质之身产生改变。如果从理论上这个假设正确,那么三密相应中的本尊观想就可以非常合理地加以解释了。通过观想本尊的圆满殊胜形象,由于精神信息能量的作用,我们的机体也逐渐趋同于本尊。

     

    假设四、修行者如法持戒修行,可以产生“精神信息能量场”,精神信息能量场会有物质化表现,这种物质化表现可以保证我们的机体少生病甚至不生病,以至于在我们的生命机能停止运动后该“精神信息能量场”依然可以保护我们的肉体不被大肠菌群分解破坏,或者在我们的机体火化后该“精神信息能量场”转化为舍利,或者该“精神信息能量场”转化我们的物质之身形成“火光三昧”现象。


    精神信息能量与物质能量不能等同,它具有精神属性,难以用物质实证手段测量,却和我们的“意念”息息相关。如果我们将意念划分为积极和消极两大类, 那么积极的意念形成的精神信息能量场也是积极的,对我们的物质之身有积极正向的加强作用;如果是消极的意念则形成消极的精神信息能量场,对我们的物质之身 起削弱负向的消极作用。因为佛教的修行实质是“慈悲喜舍”的积极意念和行为作用,故而形成的精神信息能量场是积极的正向的,它可以在我们生命体存活状态下增强我们的物质之身,从而少病少灾,这也就是“佛菩萨保佑”的全息意义。

     

    三、  佛教修行中神通力的意义以及现代哲学科学假设

     

    (一)问题:佛教抑或密教的理论,可以看作唯物主义与唯心主义哲学理论的完美结合。从经典和佛教修行实践中我们知道神通力有天眼 通、天耳通、他心通、宿命通、神足通和漏尽通。神通力究竟是一种什么样的能力?一旦神通力被认为是不可思议现象,那么对于密教修行实践中的种种就很难予以 解释而沦入不可知论的泥淖。神通力是否我们本具的而没有开发出来的潜能?现代医学科学的细胞理论与遗传学理论是否可以合理阐释之?


    (二)经典解释:

    《大正藏大般若波罗蜜多经卷第九——初分转生品第四之三》“复次舍利子,有菩萨摩诃萨修行般若波罗蜜多时,能引发六神通波罗蜜多。何等为六?一者神境智证通波罗蜜多,二者天耳智证通波罗蜜多,三者他心智证通波罗蜜多,四者宿住随念智证通波罗蜜多,五者天眼智证通波罗蜜多,六者漏尽智证通波罗蜜多” (35)。


    此段经文意义非常明确,唯有波罗蜜多行方出现六神通,然波罗蜜多本智慧也,故六神通就是六波罗蜜智慧。经文中六神通依次为神足通、天耳通、他心通、 宿命通、天眼通和漏尽通。六波罗蜜行说来简单行来困难,华译六度,即檀那(布施)、尸罗(持戒)、羼提(忍辱)、毗离耶(精进)、禅那(禅定)、般若(智 慧)。实际上我辈有情能几人做到?如果做不到不论显教行者密教行者成佛都是奢谈。六度必须落实到我们生活的一念一言一行、时时、事事、处处,如法修行持戒 修行如果做不到,那就充其量只是佛教的“说教者”。

     

    (三)六度的现代科学哲学观之全息意义:

    在解释六神通的全息意义之前,我们必须熟悉当代天体物理学甚至量子物理学的理论。


    大爆炸理论(Big Bang)是天体物理学关于宇宙起源的理论。根据大爆炸理论,宇宙是在大约一百四十亿年前由一个密度极大且温度极高的状态演变而来的。在这个起始状态中, 宇宙的物质和能量的温度和密度极高。至于在此之前发生了什么,广义相对论认为有一个引力奇点,但物理学家对此意见并不统一。


    大爆炸一词在狭义上是指宇宙形成最初一段时间所经历的剧烈变化,这段时间通过计算大概在距今一百三十七亿年前;但在广义上指当今流行的揭示宇宙起源 和膨胀的理论。这一理论的直接推论是我们今天所处的宇宙同昨天或者明天的宇宙不同。根据这一理论,前苏联物理学家乔治·伽莫夫在1948年预测了宇宙微波 背景辐射的存在。上世纪六十年代,这一辐射被探测到,有力地支持了大爆炸理论。


    由此也就引申出了“奇点”理论和“黑洞”理论。简言之,所谓“奇点”就是质量无穷大体积无穷小的“点”,宇宙就是由“奇点”不断膨胀而来,而“黑 洞”则不断吸收星体,然后演化成新“奇点”。其实这个道理和中国传统道家哲学的“原始反终”异曲同工,道家认为宇宙起源于“无”而由“无”演变成“有”, 再回归于“无”(自己的体认)。道儒之说分别阴阳,实则指“有” “无”也。


    《周易系辞上传》曰“天尊地卑,乾坤定矣。卑高以陈,贵贱位矣。动静有常,刚柔断矣。方以类聚,物以群分,吉凶生矣。在天成象,在地成形,变化见 (现)矣。是故刚柔相摩,八卦相荡。鼓之以雷霆,润之以风雨;日月运行,一寒一暑。乾道成男,坤道成女。乾知大始,坤作成物。”(36)如果从全息科学哲 学角度理解上段文字大意就是分析“有无” “阴阳”或者说“物质与精神”的相辅相成辩证关系。


    宇宙大爆炸理论已经被普遍接受,至于“奇点”和“黑洞”理论则有许多新问题不断出现,英国著名物理学家霍金(Stephen William Hawking)就有不同假设,然并不影响本篇行文。


    然而现代科学只注重了物质实证研究,却忽略了“精神”研究,而这正是现代科学哲学观不完善的地方。同样现代的佛教研究也走上了类似的考古式文献学研 究异途。传统道家经典《道德经》第四十七章云“不出户,知天下;不窥牖,见天道。其出弥远,其知弥少。是以圣人不行而知,不见而明,无为而成。”(37) 其大意简单解释就是“秀才不出门便知天下事”。现代实证式佛教研究正将佛教推向成为一门学问而非修行证悟菩提的道路。如此研究只会使我们不断埋没于知识的海洋,于开发智慧弊多利少,于修行更无丝毫裨益,正信佛子所不取也,况且其中有些言论和观点几乎无异于诽谤三宝。


    不论东方哲学还是西方哲学,总体可以划分为两大流派:唯物主义和唯心主义。虽然两派的基本哲学观不外“物质”与“精神”,然二者的主要区别在于唯物 主义认为物质第一性精神第二性,先有物质后有精神,物质决定精神;反之唯心主义则认为精神第一性物质第二性,先有精神后有物质,精神决定物质。其实这两派 的观点都不完善,最完善的就是二派理论的完美结合。其实佛法就是这两派理论事实上的完美结合。


    《金刚般若波罗蜜经》云“世尊。如来所说三千大千世界则非世界,是名世界。何以故?若世界实有者则是一合相。如来说一合相则非一合相,是名一合相。须菩提,一合相者则是不可说,但凡夫之人贪着其事”(38)(39) 。


    这里所谓的“一合”可以理解为“物质”与“精神”的“一合”。换言之“物质”与“精神”本来非一非二,通俗理解就是物质即是精神、精神即是物质,物 质可以转化为精神,精神可以转化为物质。比如我们面前有一物体,如果我们移走物体,刚才物体所存在的空间是什么?至少理论上我们可以认为是该物体的“虚” 体,换言之代表该物体的“精神”,可实际上物体被移动去后原来处什么也不存在(被空气填充),也就是物体移动了虚体同时被移动,换言之物质与精神同动、物 体与精神“一合”相。唯物主义者只见物质,唯心主义只见精神,两者的观点都失之偏颇,对于世界的认识好比盲人摸象。不可说的“一合相”就是佛家的宇宙观。 佛家的宇宙观另一重要内涵是“三千大千世界”即是“一微尘”, “一微尘”即“是三千大千世界”。所以法界只住于心,身外法界属相,内心法界属理。然理相一体,悟则无别,迷则殊异。设若宇宙的“大爆炸”和奇点理论被接 受,那么宇宙就应该被看作在漫漫历史长河中不断由“奇点”到“黑洞”,再由“黑洞”到奇点的不断循环往复运动中。如此宇宙就无所谓起源也无所谓结束,好比 “鸡”与“蛋”的先后问题,本无先后是以显现先后。试问在宇宙中有直线和平面吗?宇宙“大爆炸”假设形成了10的n次幂的微小粒子(这里n是无穷大数), 那么在宇宙衍化中这些粒子都延续至今,各组成森罗万象的大千世界。设若“大爆炸”产生之初我们对这10的n次幂个基本粒子进行连续不断跟踪观察,那么由其 中任何一个粒子推知其它任何一个粒子乃至整个宇宙的全面历史在理论上则完全可能,如此“一微尘”函“三千大千”, “三千大千”入于“一微尘”又有什么不能阐释的?由此还可以推知“他心通”亦可信可解。


    物质与精神的哲学关系亦如前述。物质可以看作我们从父母遗传所得之肉体,精神则是我们的“灵魂”。换言之物质与精神的关系就是肉体与灵魂的关系。物 质遵循物质不灭定律生生灭灭,物转物化,而灵魂则于六道中不断轮回,除非觉悟并出离。现代人受偏颇的现代科学技术的熏陶而对于轮回依然信少疑多,然按照佛 教的理论灵魂总在“天、人、修罗、地狱、饿鬼、畜牲”六道因为缘力因业不断循环往复。

     

    (四)六神通之现代科学哲学理论观假设:

    神足通:无处不可至、或者分身而至之能力


    神足通实则化身分身能力。诸多佛经均记载诸佛菩萨可以化身万千,比如《妙法莲华经——观世音菩萨普门品》中就描述观音菩萨化身三十三种:

    “佛告无尽意菩萨:‘善男子!若有国土众生,应以佛身得度者,观世音菩萨即现佛身而为说法;应以辟支佛身得度者,即现辟支佛身而为说法;应以声闻身 得度者,即现声闻身而为说法;应以梵王身得度者,即现梵王身而为说法;应以帝释身得度者,即现帝释身而为说法;应以自在天身得度者,即现自在天身而为说 法;应以大自在天身得度者,即现大自在天身而为说法;应以天大将军身得度者,即现天大将军身而为说法;应以毘沙门身得度者,即现毘沙门身而为说法;应以小 王身得度者,即现小王身而为说法;应以长者身得度者,即现长者身而为说法;应以居士身得度者,即现居士身而为说法;应以宰官身得度者,即现宰官身而为说 法;应以婆罗门身得度者,即现婆罗门身而为说法;应以比丘、比丘尼、优婆塞、优婆夷身得度者,即现比丘、比丘尼、优婆塞、优婆夷身而为说法;应以长者、居 士、宰官、婆罗门妇女身得度者,即现妇女身而为说法;应以童男、童女身得度者,即现童男、童女身而为说法;应以天、龙、夜叉、干闼婆、阿修罗、迦楼罗、紧那罗、摩睺罗伽、人非人等身得度者,即皆现之而为说法;应以执金刚身得度者,即现执金刚身而为说法。”


    “无尽意!是观世音菩萨成就如是功德,以种种形,游诸国土,度脱众生。是故汝等,应当一心供养观世音菩萨。是观世音菩萨摩诃萨,于怖畏急难之中能施无畏,是故此娑婆世界,皆号之为施无畏者。”(40)


    这里我们可以将观世音菩萨的化身看作化身也可以看作分身,所谓化身就是变化身,由一身变化出其他形象身,分身则是由一身分化出许多其他形象身。我们 小时候、少年、中年和老年就可以理解为我们自己的化身;如果我们可以变化为他人也属于化身;如果我们身体分化成许多新个体就是分身。实际上我们只有一身, 那么佛菩萨为什么可以有分身和化身?佛经中认为必须成就“无量功德”才能做到,那是强调修行的重要性。佛教有一个非常重要的概念“轮回”,如果这个概念成 立,那么过去现在和将来的“我们”,就是我们的化身。密法的行者与本尊三密相应中本尊可以看作是行者的化身道理亦如此。至于分身的理论假设后述。如果从理 论上我们自身的化身问题可以解释,那么我们可以随时随地处于任何时空都应该从理论上成立。然而实际上要达到成就“神足通”,必须做到我们机体的每个细胞之 全部储存的潜能发挥出来,这则不是纸上谈兵的事情,显教的修行要通过“三大劫”不断精进才能实现;即使密教的“即身成佛”思想确实成立也必须三密相应严格如法持戒修行。可是毕竟现代人接受了西方哲学和科学之后已经认为属于天方夜谭了,理论上的修行者多如牛毛,如法实际修行的已经成为凤毛鳞角。但是,至少经 典和佛教历史记载证实了是可以实现的。


    如《神僧传第三卷》“杯渡”中云:

    “杯渡者,不知姓名,常乘木杯渡水,人因目之。初在冀州不修细行,神力卓越世莫测其由......少时游止无定,请召或往不往。时南州有陈家,颇有 衣食,渡往其家甚见迎奉。闻都下复有一杯渡,陈父子五人咸不信,往都下看之,果如其家杯渡,形相一种,陈设一合蜜姜及刀子熏陆香手巾等,渡即食蜜姜都尽, 余物宛在膝前。其父子五人恐是其家杯渡,即留二弟停都守视,余三人还家,家中杯渡如旧膝前亦有香刀子等,但不噉蜜姜为异尔。乃语陈云,刀子钝可为磨之。二 弟还都云,彼渡已移灵鹫寺。其家忽求黄纸两幅作书,书不成字,合同其背。陈问上人作何券书,渡不答。......顷世亦言时有见者。”(41)


    天眼通 :无论遐迩巨细皆可明确辨别的眼力。


    众所周知,人类的视力具有限度,比如红外线和紫外线就非人类目力所及。然借助现代科学仪器则可以看见红外线与紫外线,借助射电天文学望远镜可以遥知 很远的星体。这也从理论上确立了天眼通是可以实现的,而且绝大多数人认为必须借助于科学仪器。佛教中的天眼通是否可以实现?这个问题似乎只有诸佛菩萨才能 回答,但诸佛菩萨毕竟皆由人修成,也就是理论上人类本身具备了回答这个问题的“可能性”。这里的天眼通不仅涉及可见物质宇宙,而且涉及可见“精神宇宙” ——即十法界。换言之,天眼通的能力还应该包括能够看见“精神宇宙”,那么天眼通就必须有“意念视力”。如果人类的视力极端是十公里,我们要看见二十公里 外就必须站在十公里处,如果我们真站在十公里处了那就不能叫天眼通了,因此只能有一种情形,那就是我们的“意念”将我们的眼睛放在十公里处。而意念力属于 精神力量,如果具备神足通能力,自然也就具备了天眼通能力。实际一切答案还在我们的机体和灵魂本身。然十法界的全息意义本身就蕴含于我们的自心中,所以天 眼通更是一种精神能力。


    现代分子遗传学发展的结果从理论上告诉我们,我们的机体有无数个细胞,每个细胞从理论上都可以克隆出一个新个体,如此可以克隆无数个新个体,克隆出来的一个新个体,又可以克隆无数个新个体。这就是天眼通和天耳通的物质基础理论假设。


    我们不妨继续假设宇宙是全息的,所谓全息就是由一物质推知其他全部物质,由局部推知全面。生物全息学说是由中国山东大学张颖清教授在一九七三年发表 的理论,简单解释“全息”,就是人体某些功能、结构独立的部位或组织,能够完整反映出“全”身讯“息”(42)。比如由一片树叶可以推知整颗树木,由一根 手指可以推知人体全部,由一个细胞推知全部生物体。推而论之,我们可以由一粒微尘推知地球,由地球了解太阳系全部,由太阳系而推知银河系全部,由银河系而 推知宇宙。而推知就是思想活动或者说是意念活动。假设“宇宙全息”概念成立,那么人类意念就可以了解全部宇宙,换言之人类的眼睛可以看到全部宇宙,人类的 耳朵可以听到全部宇宙的声音。其实中国古代著名经典《易经》就是一部表述宇宙全息性的哲学科学著作,它的思想以及道家祖师老子的《道德经》哲学科学思想完 全涵盖在佛教的全息思想中。


    《一切如来全身舍利宝箧印陀罗尼经》云“佛言谛听汝金刚手,后世若有信男信女及复我等四部弟子,发心书写此一经典,即准书写九十九百千万俱胝如来所说一切经典,即过于彼九十九百千万俱胝如来之前久植善根,即亦彼诸一切如来,加持护念犹如爱眼,亦如慈母爱护幼子。若人读诵此一卷经,即为读诵过去现在未来诸佛所说经典。”“复次佛告金刚手言,若有众生书写此经置塔中者,是塔即为一切如来金刚藏窣都婆,亦为一切如来陀罗尼心秘密加持窣都婆,即为九十九百千万俱胝如来窣都婆,亦为一切如来佛顶佛眼窣都婆,即为一切如来神力所护。”(43)


    这段经文就是佛教真理的全息性。可以背诵三藏未必理解体悟佛法,醉心纸面文章则去佛法更远。故弘法大师有名句“佛法非遥心中即近,真如非外弃身何求”(44)。读了几篇佛经,研究了一段佛教历史就认为自己精通佛法了,无异于夜郎自大!


    物理学中最基本的定律是“物质不灭定律”和“能量守恒定律”,这也和佛教的“色”观相同,唯一不同之处是佛教认为物质和精神可以互相转化,这样物质 不灭定律和能量守恒定律就产生了疑问:如果物质转化为精神物质如何守恒?如果物质能量转化为精神信息能量,能量如何守恒?从基本的哲学观看物质与精神的哲 学关系是相互依存可以相互转化,如此佛法的研究就不能只象研究历史那样,还必要研究“心灵”活动。佛由人中修成,那么佛法的研究就不能离开对人的研究,也 就不能只研究人体的生物学方面,还应该研究人类的精神方面,换言之研究人类的灵魂之实质。按照守恒定律,如果我们全息理解,应该是宇宙中的物质和精神全部 守恒。流转于六道中的一切灵魂也应该遵守这一定律。既然物质宇宙是全息的,那么对应的精神宇宙也应该是全息的,换言之可以根据一个灵魂推知宇宙的全部精神 体。灵魂是对应于物质的精神“体”。同理现代科学也必须结合“精神”内容才能使其理论完善起来。


    天耳通:分辨阴阳世界一切音声言辞的能力。与天眼通的理论假设同。


    他心通:熟知他人内心动念内容之能力。


    我们依然借助全息理论假设,同时借助于“宇宙大爆炸”理论,设若宇宙中的万物皆始于大爆炸,那么大爆炸之初我们假设对由于爆炸而产生的一切物质成分 进行跟踪观察,那么在漫长的历史岁月中,宇宙的全部物质之运行轨迹以及所发生的变化应该可以由跟踪观察的数据全息知悉。同样宇宙中已知的基本元素有百零三 种,毫无疑问随着科学技术的发展还会有新元素被发现。构成生命体的最基本最多元素为炭、氢、氧、氮四种,而就人类而言,机体的构成元素基本完全相同,而且 这些基本原素由宇宙大爆炸同时产生,根据我身体中炭、氢、氧、氮元素在漫长历史岁月中运行的全部数据也就可以推知一切人类机体中炭、氢、氧、氮元素的全部 历史数据。如此,即是在地球另一面的任何一个个体,尽管我们不认识,也可以由此相关原理推知。这正是他心通的物质学理论基础。然而人类毕竟是有灵魂的,如 果我们可以根据某一灵魂的全部信息推知其他灵魂的全部信息,那么就可以了解其他人类的全部精神活动,一切生命体同理。


    宿命通:了解自身、他人、它种类含灵物三世轮转实际的能力。


    宿命通就是灵魂运行轨迹的全部信息活动和与之相关的物质活动的历史再现、现现和将现。实质就是精神信息的全息性。


    漏尽通:烦恼已断、所做成办的能力。


    这里我们必须引入一个全新概念“摄食”。按照字面意思理解“摄食”就是摄入、食入、消化吸收的意思。但在此“摄食”不仅仅指摄取物质之意,还指摄取 “精神信息能量”之意。《金刚界五悔》和《胎藏界九方便》其实都是精神信息能量的交流,是行者的精神信息能量与佛菩萨精神信息能量的相互作用。如果因被人 赞美而开心,那是因为赞美包含有是对其而言积极愉快的“精神信息能量”。同样,皈依、忏悔、劝请、随喜、回向等都可以假设为精神信息能量的交流。佛菩萨就 是与宇宙全息一合相的精神体,行者对佛菩萨的供养就是精神信息能量的供养,佛菩萨对供养的接受就可谓摄食。我们在前面已经讨论过物质与精神可以互相转化, 设若我们可以摄取精神信息能量,那么精神信息能量就可以转化为物质能量。道家修行中有一重要概念“辟谷”,就是不吃不喝数日可以维持生命活动机能正常。我 们通常在佛坛上供养的花、香、灯、涂不仅仅表明我们的虔诚,更重要的是与佛菩萨精神体的信息能量交流。


    漏尽通顾名思义就是诸漏已尽之意,简言之就是停止新陈代谢。假设我们可以“摄食”,代谢机能就可以休息了。

     

        (五)神通力例子

     

    (1)鸠摩罗什,历史上有名的佛经翻译者。《大正藏》《神僧传》卷二如下记载:

    “什未终少日,觉四大不宁,乃口出三番神咒,令外国弟子诵之以自救。未及致力转觉危殆,于是力疾与众僧告别曰:因法相遇殊未尽心,方复后世恻怆何 言,自以闇昧谬充传译。凡所出经,论三百余卷,唯十诵一部未及删繁,存其本旨必无差失,愿凡所宣译传流后世咸共弘通。今于众前发诚实誓,若所传无谬者,当 使焚身之后舌不焦烂。以弘始十一年八月二十日卒于长安。是岁晋义熙五年也。即于逍遥园依外国法以火焚尸,薪灭形碎惟舌不灰尔。”(45)


    鸠摩罗什大师在入灭前誓言,设若我所译经典无有错谬,荼毗之后舌当不烂,然亦确实如此。

     

    (2)金刚智

      《大正藏》《神僧传》卷第七记载:

    “至开元中达于广府,后随驾洛阳。其年自正月不雨迨于五月,岳渎灵祠祷之无应,乃诏智结坛祈请。于是用不空钩依菩萨法,在所住处起坛,深四肘,躬绘 七俱胝菩萨像,立期以开光明日定随雨焉。帝使一行禅师谨密候之,至第七日炎气爞爞天无浮翳,午后方开眉眼实时西北风生,飞瓦拔树崩云泄雨,远近惊骇。而结 坛之地,穿穴其屋洪注道场。质明京师一庶皆云,智获一龙穿屋飞去。求观其处日千万人。”


      “初帝之第二十五公主甚钟其爱,久疾不救移卧于咸宜外馆,闭目不语已经旬朔。有敕令智授之戒法,此乃料其必终故有是命。智诣彼择取宫中七岁二女 子,以绯缯缠其面目卧于地,使牛仙童写敕一纸焚于他所,智以密语咒之,二女冥然诵得不遗一字。智入三摩地,以不思议力令二女持敕诣琰摩王。食顷间王令公主 亡保母刘氏护送公主魂,随二女至。于是公主起坐开目言语如常,帝闻之不俟仗卫驰骑往于外馆。公主奏曰,冥数难移,今王遣回略觐圣颜而已,可半日间然后长 逝。自尔帝方加归仰焉。”


    “至二十年壬申八月既望,于洛阳广福寺命门人曰,白月圆时吾当去矣。遂礼毘卢遮那佛旋绕七匝,退归本院焚香发愿,顶戴梵夹并新译教法,付嘱讫寂然而化。”(46)

     

    (3)无畏三藏

    “三藏饮酒食肉言行麤易,往往乘醉喧竞秽污茵席。宣律颇不能甘之,忽中夜宣律扪虱将投于地。三藏半醉连声呼曰,律师律师扑死佛子耶。宣律方知其为异人也,整衣作礼而师事焉。”


    “在洛时有巨蛇高丈余长且百尺,其状甚异,蟠绕出于山下,洛民咸见之。畏语曰,此蛇欲决水潴洛城。即说佛书义,其蛇至夕则驾风露来,若倾听状。畏责之曰,尔蛇也,当居深山中用安其所,何为将欲肆毒于世耶,速去无患生人。其蛇闻之若有惭色,遂俯于地顷而死焉。”


    “开元十年七月旱,帝遣使诏无畏请雨。畏持满钵水以小刀搅之,诵咒数番,即有物如蚪龙从钵中矫首水面。畏咒遣之,白气自钵腾涌。语诏使曰,速归雨即 至矣。诏使驰出,顷刻风雷震电。诏使趋入奏,御衣巾已透湿。霖雨弥日而息。又尝淫雨逾时,诏畏止之。畏掜泥媪五躯向之作梵语叱骂者,即刻而霁。”(47)

     

    (4)一行

    《大正藏》《神僧传》卷第七记载:

    “一行因穷大衍,自此求访师资不远数千里。尝至天台国清寺见一院,古松数十株门前有流水。一行立于门屏间闻院中僧于庭布算,其声蓛蓛,既而谓其徒 曰:今日当有弟子求吾算法,已合到门,岂无人导达耶。即除一算,又谓曰:门前水合却西流弟子当至。一行承言而入,稽首请法尽授其术。而门水复东流矣。自此 声振遐迩。”


    “初一行幼时家贫邻有王姥,前后济之约数十万,一行尝思报之。至开元中一行承玄宗敬遇言无不可。未几会王姥儿犯杀人,狱未具。姥诣一行求救,一行 曰:姥要金帛,当十倍畴也,君上执法难以请求如何。王姥戟手大骂曰,何用识此僧。一行从而谢之,终不顾。一行心计浑天寺中工役数百,乃命空其室内,徙一大 瓮。于中,密选常住奴二人,授以布囊。谓曰:某方某角有废园,汝中潜伺从午至昏,当有物入来,其数七者可尽掩之,失一则杖汝。如言而往,至酉后果有群豕 至,悉获而归。一行大喜,令寘瓮中覆以木盖,封以六一泥,朱题梵字数十,其徒莫测。诘朝中使叩门急召至便殿,玄宗迎问曰:太史奏,昨夜北斗不见,是何祥 也?师有以禳之乎。一行曰:后魏时失荧惑至今帝车不见,古所无者天将大警于陛下也。夫匹夫匹妇不得其所,则陨霜赤旱,盛德所感乃能退舍,感之切者其在葬枯 出击乎。释门以瞋心坏一切善,慈心降一切魔,如臣曲见莫若大赦天下。玄宗从之。又其夕太史奏,北斗一星见,凡七日而复。”(48)

     

    (5)不空

      《大正藏》《神僧传》卷第八记载:

      “既达师子国,王遣使迎之,极备供养。一日王作调象戏,人皆登高望之无敢近者。空口诵手印住于慈定,当衢而立,狂象数头顿皆踢趺,举国奇之。”


      “至天宝五载还京,是岁终夏愆阳。诏令祈雨,制曰:时不得赊雨不得暴。空奏立孔雀王坛,未尽三日雨已浃洽。帝大悦。”


      “又以京师春夏不雨,诏空祈请,如三日内雨是和尚法力,三日已往而霈然者非法力也。空受敕立坛,至第二日大雨云足。一岁复大旱,京兆尹萧昕诣寺 谓为结坛致雨,不空命其徒取桦皮仅尺余,缋小龙于其上,而以炉香瓯水置于前,转吹震舌呼使咒之。食顷即以缋龙授昕曰,可投此于曲江中,投讫亟还,无冒风 雨。昕如言投之,旋有白龙纔尺余,摇鬣振鳞自水出,俄而龙长数丈,状如曳素,倏忽亘天。昕鞭马疾驱未及数十步,云物凝晦暴雨骤降,比至永崇里第衢中之水已 决渠矣。”


    “至永泰中香水沐浴东首以卧,比面瞻礼阙庭,以大印身定中而寂。茶毘火灭,收舍利数百粒,其顶骨不燃,中有舍利一颗,半隐半现。敕于本院别起塔焉。”(49)


    神通的例子在佛典及佛教纪事中比比皆是不胜枚举。由以上诸例我们可以看到佛法的修持确实可以出现神通。


    佛法不论显教抑或密教都是真理体系,现代科学中的许多观点也具有真理的特性,真理应该被真理所诠释,换言之就是佛法应该可以用现代科学哲学中被普遍 接受的理论来诠释。传统对于佛经的阐释是“以经解经”,其作法固然正确,然在科学高度发展的今天,要让更多的人了解佛法的全息哲学科学性,传统的阐释方法就缺乏说服力,长此以往佛教就变成了纯粹的说教。说教的结果只是信仰,知其然不知其所以然。当然佛教是实践的哲学科学体系,没有实践也是纸上谈兵,现代的 许多佛教研究就已经变成了纸上谈兵。佛教研究家整日夸夸其谈,实际对于修行没有丝毫帮助。


    神通力的经典诠释,佛经中究竟如何阐释神通力?


    《大正藏——大般若波罗蜜多经卷第三初分学观品第二之一》云:

    “若菩萨摩诃萨,欲一念顷安立十方殑伽沙等诸佛世界一切有情,皆令习学四静虑四无量四无色定获五神通,应学般若波罗蜜多。”


    “复次舍利子,若菩萨摩诃萨,修行般若波罗蜜多能如实知,如是布施得大果报,谓如实知。如是布施得生剎帝力大族,如是布施得生婆罗门大族,如是布施 得生长者大族,如是布施得生居士大族,如是布施得生四大王众天,或生三十三天,或生夜摩天,或生覩史多天,或生乐变化天,或生他化自在天。因是布施得初静 虑,或第二静虑,或第三静虑,或第四静虑。因是布施得空无边处定,或识无边处定,或无所有处定,或非想非非想处定。因是布施得三十七菩提分法,因是布施得 三解脱门,因是布施得八解脱,或八胜处,或九次第定,或十遍处。因是布施得陀罗尼门,或三摩地门,因是布施得入菩萨正性离生,因是布施得极喜地,或离垢 地,或发光地,或焰慧地,或极难胜地,或现前地,或远行地,或不动地,或善慧地,或法云地。因是布施得佛五眼,或六神通。因是布施得佛十力,或四无所畏, 或四无碍解,或十八佛不共法,或大慈大悲大喜大舍。因是布施得三十二大丈夫相,或八十随好。因是布施得无忘失法,或恒住舍性。因是布施得一切智,或道相 智,或一切相智。因是布施得预流果,或一来果,或不还果,或阿罗汉果,或独觉菩提,或得无上正等菩提。能如实知,如是净戒安忍精进静虑般若,得大果报亦复 如是” 。“若菩萨摩诃萨,欲得五眼,所谓肉眼天眼慧眼法眼佛眼,应学般若波罗蜜多。复次舍利子,若菩萨摩诃萨,欲以天眼普见十方殑伽沙等诸佛世界一切如来应正等觉,应学般若波罗蜜多。若菩萨摩诃萨,欲以天耳普闻十方殑伽沙等诸佛世界一切如来应正等觉所说正法,应学般若波罗蜜多。”(50)


    《大正藏——大般若波罗蜜多经卷第三百四十六》云:

    “善现,是菩萨摩诃萨能如是行甚深般若波罗蜜多,则令苦圣谛速得圆满,亦令集灭道圣谛速得圆满。善现,是菩萨摩诃萨能如是行甚深般若波罗蜜多,则令 四静虑速得圆满,亦令四无量四无色定速得圆满。善现,是菩萨摩诃萨能如是行甚深般若波罗蜜多,则令八解脱速得圆满,亦令八胜处九次第定十遍处速得圆满。善 现,是菩萨摩诃萨能如是行甚深般若波罗蜜多,则令四念住速得圆满,亦令四正断四神足五根五力七等觉支八圣道支速得圆满。”(51)


    以上经文之意义就是行六波罗蜜可以获得神通或者说开发潜能。六度万行为什么在全部佛典中反复强调?原因佛经中已经充分阐释,笔者认为六度万行正是我 们的精神体与外环境中一切精神体不断的信息能量交流,正如我们的身体由一个受精卵发育成一个成熟完整的生命,我们的精神体也是不断发育完善的。这里在成人 阶段并非表示我们的精神体已经发展完善,而仅仅是向佛菩萨更大的精神体趋同的开始。


    神通力的表现究竟如何?神通力属于超能力还是我们自身细胞本具能力?一切有情皆具佛性,换言之我们都有成佛的潜在可能,那么我们自体是否具备潜在神通力?是否经过密教和佛法的修行这种能力必然产生?


    如果我们自身具备这样的潜力,那么通过如法修行就应该能够达到目的。可是如今的行者中为何这种潜力开发者不多见?如此一来必然涉及到戒律守护,戒律的全息意义正是转烦恼为菩提的最适当辅助手段,也是开发我们自身本具潜力的必然途径。


    佛由人中修成,那么人体是为根本。如此一来势必我们必须结合人体生理、解剖、遗传等理论来了解人体构造,而这些理论也应该必须可以阐释佛法。


    近代生物遗传学技术取得了长足发展,依照最近的生物克隆技术理论,生命体的单一个体细胞可以克隆出一个完整的新生命体,从此理论可以推知我们的每一 个细胞都可以克隆成一个新“我”个体,如此便有无数无量个体,新的克隆个体依然可以继续克隆。如此“诸佛菩萨犹如胡麻遍满虚空侧塞无隙”有何难解?


    以单细胞为例,单一细胞的全部功能如对声音、光线、味道、触觉、运动、信息传输等必须由细胞独立完成。依照胚胎发育理论,单一受精卵细胞衍化分裂形 成一个个体,每个细胞中的遗传基因完全相同,无论细胞分化为何种职能,遗传基因的相同性决定细胞职能的“相同性”,这大约可以理解为神通力的理论基础。

     

    (六)神通力之现代科学哲学观假设

    就自然科学对生命现象研究至今的论述看,我们可以接受如此论点,生命是由单细胞演化而来。在单细胞生命阶段,一个细胞要独立完成色、声、香、味、 触、动等全部生命活动的机能。随着细胞由单细胞演化到多细胞而出现组织器官分化,生命的活动机能在细胞间产生分工,有些细胞负责色(视觉)、有些细胞负责 声音(听觉)、有些细胞负责香(嗅觉)、有些细胞负责味(味觉)、有些细胞负责触(感觉),还有其他的细胞则负责运动。当然这个过程是经历了漫长的历史岁 月才完成的。到了多细胞阶段,由于细胞的功能分化,负责色的细胞“遗忘”了声、香、味、触、动功能,负责声音的细胞忘记了色、香、味、触、动功能,负责香 的细胞忘记了色、声、味、触、动功能,负责味的细胞忘记了色、声、香、触、动功能,负责触的细胞忘记了色、声、香、味、动功能,负责动的细胞忘记了色、 声、香、味、触功能。但是,由于细胞由同一源细胞分化发展而来,如同我们机体的全部细胞由一个独立的受精卵分化发展而来,细胞虽然功能分化了,但是遗传物 质——基因完全相同,因此我们可以假设细胞的全部活动机能在每一个细胞的遗传基因中同等存在,只是这些基因不再发挥“不相关”或者“遗忘”了某些功能,所 以到今天生命的高级阶段,色觉细胞单一负责色觉(对光),听觉细胞单一负责对声音的感受,嗅觉细胞单一负责气味,味觉细胞单一负责味觉,触觉细胞单一负责 触觉,运动细胞单一负责运动,如此等等。但是色觉细胞“遗忘”了听觉、嗅觉、味觉、触觉、运动功能,听觉细胞“遗忘”了色觉、嗅觉、味觉、触觉、运动功 能,嗅觉细胞“遗忘”了色觉、听觉、味觉、触觉、运动功能,味觉细胞“遗忘”了色觉、听觉、嗅觉、触觉、运动功能,触觉细胞“遗忘”了色觉、听觉、嗅觉、 味觉、运动功能,运动细胞“遗忘”了色觉、听觉、嗅觉、味觉、触觉功能。


    尽管细胞的功能单一化,但是任何细胞的遗传基因中都涵有细胞其他功能的密码“记忆”。比如色觉细胞起色彩分辨功能,但是它也具有“遗忘”的其他功 能,如果能够使色觉细胞恢复对其他功能的“记忆”,色觉细胞依然可以具有听觉、嗅觉、味觉、触觉、运动功能;骨骼细胞起固定作用,一旦回复记忆,也可以起 运动功能和其他细胞所“遗忘”的全部功能;运动细胞可以固定、可以感觉、可以传递神经信息;同理其他细胞在理论上都可以恢复其因为分化而“遗忘”的功能。


    无论如何,这一假设在理论上完全成立。如果假设成立,那么神通就应该是本能。由于普通人并没有神通表现,所以说,并非人类细胞的全部本能发挥和表现 了出来,我们日常生活中的一切活动仅仅是人类本能的极少部分,没有表现出来的本能我们称为“潜能”。所以,神通是人类也是全部生命体的“潜能”,换言之全 部有情的“潜能”。


    神通所以只是潜能,由于遗传基因在各种细胞中的信息全息等同,这就决定了神通的全息性。


    如此一来,神通就非“超自然”的能力,佛教经典中记载的“神通”也就不是天方夜谭了。如此神通就不再神秘,神通也就不再被看作超自然能力,而实质是本能。


    但是,为什么我们没有神通?或者说没有表现出“潜能”?


    只是我们在轮回中被无明妄想贪、嗔、痴三毒覆蔽了妙明本性而不知也。远古的祖先为什么在灾难来临前能够预先预知?动物在地震前为什么能有预警?其实 道理完全一样。所以神通非超自然能力而是本具能力,这就是神通的自有性。神通的开发在佛经中反复强调要持戒、精进六度万行、慈悲喜舍四无量行等等,换言之 “潜能”的开发就是要经过我们的机体不断与外环境进行积极善良的信息能量交流。好比一个原子,其围绕原子核外的电子如果要跳跃到一个高能阶,就必须接受额 外的能量。埋在地下的宝藏必须经过开挖才能显现,然即使开挖出来也必须筛选精制等才能展现宝藏的全部特质。人体“潜能”的开发道理相同。


    现代生物遗传技术可以由单一体细胞培养出一个新个体,抛开伦理学不谈,由人体体细胞可以克隆出一个“新人”在理论上完全成立。人体的细胞数量应该说 是个天文数字,假设人体有十的二十次方个细胞,那么理论上就能够克隆出十的二十次方个新个体,每一新个体又可以克隆出如此多的新个体而繁衍不穷。如此佛 陀、菩萨化身万千住定三千大千世界也从现代科学理论上推论成立。这也正是人体信息的全息性。这也是“一微尘涵三千大千世界,三千大千世界复入一微尘”之全 息意义。


    但是理论并非实践,佛陀的法教正是实践真理的教导,也是开发有情本有潜能的教导。经、律、论三藏之制,通过闻、思、修,达到戒、定、慧,智、行圆满神通必然成就。


    佛法是博大精深的全息科学体系,释迦牟尼成佛正是基于对宇宙真理的彻底认识和证知。


    如何使细胞记忆起“遗忘”的功能呢?能不能使细胞恢复记忆“遗忘”的功能?答案是肯定的,能!释迦牟尼世尊的证道回答了这两个问题。


    通过不遗余力的修炼,释迦牟尼的所有细胞潜能都得到了百分之百的发挥,所以世尊具有各种神通。修炼从外相看无非简单艰苦的身体力行活动如诵经打坐 等,其实不然。更进一步看修炼的精神内涵,应该明白修炼是不断地积极健康精神信息能量的累积,这种累积达到一定程度就会开发出我们本具的“潜能”——神 通。佛教的修行特别重视持戒,如果没有戒律了,佛法也就失没了!


    (佛教的记述不要愚妄地认为是编造的历史故事)。同理可以解释为什么人体具有“特异功能”,其实不是“特异功能”而是人体的本能!


    由此可以推论:一切都可以改变!所谓众生皆可成佛!途径——修炼。多读佛教经典如法修行或许会获益匪浅!

     

    四、戒律的全息意义:

    佛家戒律中有不杀生戒,经论中已经有详尽解释,大意为慈悲心使然。因为一切有情皆可以成佛,杀生而食无异于杀佛、出佛身血。不杀生正是培养我们的慈悲爱心。


    从理论上也应该可以这样解释:任何生命都是有感情的,现代生物学的许多实验也基本证实了这点。须知生命的涵义包含两个基本部分,一者肉体,二者灵 魂。灵魂换言之是我们的精神之身。宰杀任何生命,它会以感谢、快乐的感情对待屠杀者吗?大约不会。所以从理论上可以认为宰杀任何动物,它们必然充满恐惧、 忿怒、仇恨等等情绪。物质与精神是一合一体,恐惧、忿怒、仇恨等情绪的精神信息能量也必然和肉体结合。食用了它们的肉,食用者身体吸收了脂肪、蛋白质等 等,补充了物质之身的需要。同时精神之身必然也摄取和吸收了包含在其肉体中的“恐惧、忿怒、仇恨”信息能量。那么这些消极的精神信息能量便会在食用者的物质之身内不断蓄积增加。


    哲学的基本命题中已经肯定了物质和精神可以相互作用,那么食用者精神之身所蓄积的消极精神信息能量增加到一定程度必然会反作用于其物质之身!结果食 用者的物质之身就会被其所摄入的消极精神信息能量削弱,被削弱了的物质之身必然容易患病。因为物质之身的受损而导致行为出现缺陷而必然容易出灾祸!


    推而广之,这个道理其实在生活中比比皆是。我们的心念中善良的成分越多,我们接收到善良精神信息能量的机会越多;反之亦然。所以,以善心对待一切有情正是我们对自己进行保护的最佳方式,也是保护我们菩提慧命的基本方式。


    古人有句很实在的对联“诚为至善一生用之不尽,心作善田百世耕作有余”!


    生活中人们经常说“酒肉穿肠过,佛祖心中留”,其实酒肉最不容易穿肠过,而是最后的“断肠过”。


    密严院发露忏悔文:“我等忏悔无始来,妄想所缠造众罪,身口意业常颠倒,误犯无量不善业。”这几句话从字面理解很容易. “我”其实一生即生老病死,何来 “无始来”?这里的“无始”就是无始劫,指过去的无量岁月,那就隐含“我”不仅仅指我们的物质之身肉体,而更多指我们的精 神体——灵魂。我们的灵魂携带着过去的一切“罪业”,换言之,我们的精神体负荷着我们的灵魂在六道轮回中所积累的全部精神信息能量。而这些精神信息能量中 的消极能量就是“无明”,只有转化消极能量为积极能量才是所谓“断无明”。既然今生我们的人身携带无量消极精神信息能量,将其转化就是非常艰巨的任务。而 要开发我们本身的“潜能”,势必首先转化或者抵消消极能量,并增加积极能量。这也正是戒律和六度万行的全息意义。


    戒律的全息意义正如不杀生的道理一样,所以守戒对于修行者而言至关重要,轻视戒律违反戒律者,几乎可以说没有一个成就者。即是偶尔有极端例子,那也 是入于魔道,非佛菩萨道也。六度万行孜孜不倦才能真正做到心清净,心完全清净,一切都成为方便法门。心不清净,谈所谓方便法门无异于痴人说梦。

     

    五、三密加持之假设

    严格按照密教教敕如法修行必然开发行者本具潜能,三密相应乃开发六神通之必由之路。如果仅仅局限于理解密教教理事相,而怠于勤行明显不足,实践乃密 法修证的大事。就实践而言仅仅每日机械教条作法显然不够,必须将四无量行落实到生活的全部领域,将佛法智慧用之于日常,如此我们必将行进在成佛的道路上。 从三密相应实践看,经络(与瑜伽异名全息)之运行乃非常正确之法门。


    经络的全息意义(或者说瑜伽术的全息意义)为何?欧美科学家研究的结果认为经络仅仅是微小结晶,诚然对于浸淫东方哲学思想的行者而言,接受此结论实 在困难。我们的身体如果二分则为肉体与灵魂两部分,换言之物质与精神两部分,我们在此完全可以假设“经络”是人体物质与精神的“临界状态”,如此一来,手 印的全息意义也变得更容易理解。观想法门正好也可以理解为物质与精神相互转化的途径之一。


    由此看来,精进于密法实践,即生成佛指日可期。


    日本著名博士江本胜先生致力于水分子结晶的研究,其研究结论非常有意义。当水在各种媒介比如声音、图像、文字乃至意念的刺激下,其冷冻结晶非常有趣。或许我们完全可以用其研究结果说明神通力和肉身不坏等现象。


    梵字真言乃佛陀语言,持诵梵字会给我们带来什么效用?佛陀一圆音说法,众生随类而得度。佛陀语言满含慈悲哀悯,如果依法诵唱,我们身体的水分子结构会否改变?依照江本胜博士的研究结论,答案是肯定的积极的。同理我们身体的其它一切组织结构都会发生积极转变。


    三密加持修行对行者有什么样的影响?如此修行对细胞、神经、经络等有何影响?如果不能很好解释这些问题,那么如今的佛教就完全沦落为说教。


    就密教的研究而言,究竟该如何进行?单纯的考古式或者文献式研究或许有些意义,但此类研究结论大多属于历史和佛教知识的堆积,若果其中缺乏佛法的智慧成分,其研究与制造垃圾何殊?密法是实践的佛法不纸上谈兵的空论。


    三密加持,包含两层意思,首先是“三密相应”,其次是“三力加持”。三密是行者身、口、意与本尊身、口、意的秘密相应,三力指法界力、如来力和行者功德力。


    研究家江本胜先生关于水结晶的系列研究对于佛教密教修行而言意义非常重大。其研究大概来说就是给水以各种各样的信息刺激,这些刺激大致可以分为积极 与消极两类。所谓积极的刺激比如“爱”“关怀”“幸福”“感谢”“赞美”,消极的刺激比如“恨”“冷漠”“悲哀”“背信”“咒骂”等,结果观察水分子的晶 体结构,给予积极刺激的水分子晶体非常规则、美丽,相反给予消极刺激的水分子结晶则不规则、凌乱(见图五)。

    图五




    1987 年,法国科学家杰克·班伯尼在《自然》杂志上发表了一篇令人惊异的论文,证明水有“记忆”的功能,但是始终得不到科学界的认同。日本的江本 胜发现雪花结晶独一无二的原理(历史上世界各地亿兆粒出现过的雪花中,没有两粒图案是完全一样的),于是他开始观察不同来源的水结出的冰粒,其晶状图案有何分别。


    他将水放进一般的雪柜里结冰,然后用强力的显微镜拍下结晶的样貌(详载于其著作《生命的答案,水知道》一书),结果拍出来的照片显示天然水的结晶都十分漂亮,而自来水及受过人类工业文明污染的水,结晶则丑陋,不少甚至根本结不成冰。


    取自巴黎、伦敦、东京、罗马、威尼斯、曼谷、澳门的自来水,无不影像模糊,颜色黯淡,形状扭曲不规则,教人看了心里挺不舒服。


    取自香港的自来水结晶也很不规则。取自华盛顿、温哥华、伯尔尼(瑞士首都)等城市的水,结晶匀称而亮丽,线条明确。


    取自南极、各大洲的涌泉及荒郊地下的水,结晶都像宝石首饰那样,令人为之神往、迷倒,绽放出开心的信息。


    进一步研究发现,水听了优雅的音乐,结晶变得漂亮,听了吵闹令人烦厌的音乐,则变得扭曲丑陋。水受到了法师祝福,结晶变得漂亮。将优美的风景或祝福字句放在水的前面,结晶变得漂亮。将诅咒的字句放在水的前面,水变得扭曲丑陋。


    听过贝多芬《田园交响曲》的水,结晶正如明朗爽快的曲调那样美丽而整齐;听过韩国民谣《阿里郎》的水,结晶形状好像心痛万分(该曲描述恋人分手的悲 痛心情);听过猫王埃尔维斯.普雷斯利唱《Heartbreak Hotel》(《碎心酒店》)的水,结晶体竟成了一个破碎的心的形状,部分掉了出来;听过巴西音乐那些强烈节奏激动旋律之后,水结晶纷纷成复雑细腻的星星 形状;听过奥地利民谣《提罗尔的摇篮曲》的水,结晶体内出现了一个婴儿的形状;听过西藏经文诵唱的水,复杂的结晶相互纠结,形成强而有力的形状,恍似西藏 经文中描写的曼陀罗(有能量的图案);最妙不可言的是那两幅听过阿根廷探戈音乐的水的照片,结晶不约而同都是双双对对翩然起舞,舞姿甚至令人陶醉神往,飘 飘然起来呢(没有任何其他结晶是双双对对的)。相反,听过某重金属乐曲的水,结晶一片混沌零散,跟该曲愤怒低俗的歌词一样人令人不安难耐。


    水阅读字句之后又如何呢?他们把同样的水装入多个瓶子之内,然后在纸上写不同的字,并将字面朝内贴到瓶身上,让水“阅读”,结果:


    “谢谢”字样的水结晶呈现出美丽的六角型,相反“混蛋”字样的水结晶亦是像听过重金属乐曲一样的混沌零散;“我们一起做吧”的邀请字句水结晶形状匀 称完整, “给我做”不客气的命令句子水分子一片凌乱,无法呈现结晶;用多国文字写“谢谢”的水呈现出不同的结晶,但一律都晶莹匀称动人,但看到了不同文字 写的 “混账”、“蠢蛋”之类咒诅的语句的水都无法结晶,其中“火冒三丈,宰了你”的水结晶竟呈现出一个小孩被人欺负的影像;日、英、德文“智慧”一词的结 晶都端正而中空,呈六角形状;“天使”一词的水呈现一个小结晶的美环光环;“恶魔”一词的水结晶中心部分呈现黑色突起状,感觉充满攻击性。


    水受赞美、受咒诅之后的情形如何?研究组邀请一些小学生对一瓶一瓶的水讲话。结果听过“好可爱喔”的水,结晶体纷纷呈现可爱的图案形状,被诅过“王 八蛋” 的水,一片灰暗混浊,无法结晶;听过一次“你好漂亮喔”的水,结晶精美,不断听到“你好漂亮喔”的水,结晶更完整匀称,而丢在一旁没有人关心的水, 结晶形状散乱,令人感到可怜。


    江本胜博士认为:一般人总是以为水是“死物”(没有生命的东西)。原来所谓没有生命的东西并不“死”,它们都一样有“感应”(能看能听能阅读)有 “思想” (能分析)有“记忆”。由此可见,万物分分秒秒在交流一些能量,作曲家演奏者将“气”放进音乐内,音乐作为载体,会将“气”传送到水,水能接收 能解碼且能储存个中的信息(52)。


    意念本身就是能量,可以传送、被接收,而且必然影响所有接收到的东西(包括“死”物)。以前,这种玄学(形而上学)的理论被视为宗教的概念或抽象的信念,如今被客观具体的方式证实,并显示了出来。


    凡是积极的意念,都发出真、善、美的信息,令万物更好。由这些实验见出,“我爱你”、 “我感谢你”(爱与感恩)是天下间最强力的积极力量(正能量)。


    水尚且如此,根据我们的宇宙全息概念,宇宙中的万物,不特生命,都具备如此性质。就我们人类的机体而言,其组成除了物质结构还具备灵魂,如果仅仅用物质能量的变化还不能说明江本胜博士的研究,要全面解释其研究就必须引入“精神信息能量”概念。


    三密修行中,真言是佛菩萨的语言,代表着慈悲喜舍六波罗蜜的精神信息能量,手印是佛菩萨的动作,代表如来事业,观想本尊是用意念使我们与佛菩萨趋 同。如此精进不断,我们的身体之物质结构必然会发生积极的改变。好比炭原子,杂乱排列是碳,高级有序排列是石墨,最完美的晶体结构排列是钻石。同样,我们 身体的结构未修行前是众生,修行中可以达到缘觉声闻罗汉状态,成就后就是佛陀。不特密教修行,显教修行全息意义亦然。以上的研究也证明密教更胜于显教,然 只知显密优劣,不持戒,不修六度万行,不行慈悲喜舍,心则不得清凈。心不清凈,就没有方便法门,即使日日修密也未必成就;心清凈,一切法门都是方便法门; 心清凈,修密法才更容易成就。奢谈佛理,无戒无行,成佛无疑做梦。

     

    六、摩诃不可思议现象的现代科学哲学假设假设

    佛教修行中伴随一系列摩诃不可思议现象,如金刚不坏(肉身不坏)、虹身、舍利等,究竟是自然现象抑或超自然现象?就至今的佛教研究面看,相关解释还没有。


    比如虹身,入灭时行者身体挥发为光、热和香气,的确很难思议。舍利可以理解为人体物质与精神临界状态的产物。


    什么是摩诃不可思议现象?如果我们用全息哲学科学观看待,似乎就很容易理解了。现代科学因为缺乏对于精神因素的研究故而偏颇,用片面的理论是无法阐 释上述摩诃不可思议现象的。佛教是完全可以涵括现代科学的全息哲学科学体系,在此认识基础上一切问题都会迎刃而解。研究物质与研究精神不可能用相同的方法,实证主义研究仅仅适用于物质研究,精神研究必须靠我们的“心”。


    摩诃不可思议现象又曰超自然现象,指超越人类已知的知识而存在的或者发生的现代科学哲学理论所不能说明的事物或者现象。比如“肉身不坏”、“舍利”、“神通”、“火光三昧”、“时空隧道”“人体自燃”、等等。


    研究物质与研究精神不可能用相同的方法,实证主义研究仅仅适用于物质研究,精神研究必须靠我们的“心”。


    这里不准备就超自然现象进行展开,前面的分析和假设以及举例,足以说明现代科学哲学观的局限性,以及引入精神概念的重要性。


    与其说是超自然现象,毋宁说是现代科学哲学还不完备无法解释的现象。现代科学哲学之所以不完备,是因为它只考虑了物质而忽略了精神。物质和精神是一 对矛盾统一体,相互依存相互影响,也可以相互转化。而现代科学哲学现而易见地只注重了物质实证,完全忽视了精神因素的影响和作用。


     

    总结

    空海——弘法大师,一生积极实践密教教理,慈悲喜舍六度万行,终获肉身不坏。肉身不坏就是成就的证明,这比空谈佛理来得更为直观可信。


    现代人接受了西方科学,渐渐走上了物质实证主义道路,使得佛教、密教的研究变得不伦不类,几乎完全忽略了精神的作用。而在佛教的修行中,精神又至关 重要,研究精神的方法更没有人涉及或者说仅仅局限于文字分析和说空理。西方科学不是完善的哲学科学,完善的哲学科学只有佛法,它完美地结合了唯物与唯识的 合理论点,在修行实践中体现出其全息哲学科学之真理性。


    宇宙分为实宇宙和虚宇宙,即物质宇宙和精神宇宙,两者一合不可分割;实宇宙就是佛家所谓的“色”,虚宇宙就是佛菩萨的精神体;一切所谓超自然现象摩 诃不可思议现象都是发生在虚、实宇宙的临界状态;神通是一切生命体的本能或者说“潜能”;三密相应的修行好比将炭原子由无序到有序排列的能量吸收过程;佛 教的一切修行都是不断与外环境的精神信息能量交流;戒律的全息意义就是保证修行者不断摄取积极的精神信息能量。

     

     

    参考文献:

    1、《金刚峰寺建立修行缘起》,《弘传全》vol. 1, p. 54a.

    2、《空海僧都传》《弘传全》vol. 1, p. 32b.另空海语录《御遗告》《定弘全》vol. 7, p. 356)、圣贤(1083-1147)《高野大师御弘传》下付此五月二十八日《遗诫》(《定弘全》vol. 7, p. 391-392)(《弘传全》vol. 1, p. 262b- 263b)。

    3、《太政官符并遗告》《定弘全》vol. 7, p. 346.

    4、《御遗告》,《定弘全》vol. 7, 356.

    5、同上, p. 365.

    6、《金刚峰寺建立修行缘起》,《弘传全》vol. 1, p. 55a.

    7、就遗告是否为空海撰写至今有疑,参照武内孝善《御遗告之成立过程》,《印度学佛教学研究》vol.43,no.2(vol.86), pp. 607-611, 1995及《御遗告的成立过程-付御遗告项目对照表》《密教学会报》vol. 35, 1996等。

    8、《弘法大师御传》,《弘传全》vol. 1, 218a-b,贤宝《弘法大师行状要集》vol. 6,《弘传全》vol.3, p.193a-194a.

    9、《大般若波罗蜜多経》vol.53, T.5, p298c.

    10、《弘法大师入定说研究》,p.190, 六兴出版 1982。

    11、《成唯识论》,vol. 3, T31, p.12c。及《成唯识论述记》,vol.3论及“道理三世、神通三世、唯识三世三种,其中唯识三世乃「多分分别妄心所变,似去来相,实为现在,此中论文,法体离言但惟有识」(T43, p.339c)。

    12、《大正藏_第八十卷_五灯会元卷第三》,pp.69-70。

    13、《大正藏_第八十卷_五灯会元卷第一》,pp.31-31。

    14、参照九华山官方网站:

    http://www.fo365.cn/gsgl_list.asp?action=more&c_id=43

    15、Joan Carroll Crutz,《不腐之身》, 美国, 1977.

    16、《大智度论》,vol. 28中云“五通是菩萨所得。今欲住六通是佛所得。若菩萨六神通可如来。”(T. 25, p.264a)。

    17、《宋高僧传》等列举诸多。

    18、《大正藏_第八十卷_五灯会元卷第一》,pp.28-31。

    19、《大正藏_第八十卷_五灯会元卷第一》,pp.31-32。

    20、《大正藏_第八十卷_五灯会元卷第一》,pp.32-32。

    21、《大正藏_第八十卷_五灯会元卷第一》,pp.33-33。

    22、《大正藏_第八十卷_五灯会元卷第一》,pp.33-33。

    23、《大正藏_第八十卷_五灯会元卷第一》,pp.34-34。

    24、《大正藏_第八十卷_五灯会元卷第一》,pp.35-35。

    25、《大正藏_第八十卷_五灯会元卷第一》,pp.35-35。

    26、《大正藏_第八十卷_五灯会元卷第一》,pp.36-37。

    27、《大正藏_第八十卷_五灯会元卷第一》,pp.37-37。

    28、《大正藏_第八十卷_五灯会元卷第一》,pp.39-39。

    29、《大正藏_第八十卷_五灯会元卷第一》,pp.39-40。

    30、《大正藏_第八十卷_五灯会元卷第一》,pp.40-40。

    31、陈慰峰《医学免疫学》,人民卫生出版社,2005。

    32、吕志平赵春妮《基础中国医学》,科学出版社,2006。

    33、《黄帝内经》,人民卫生出版社,2005。

    34、参照霎哈嘉瑜伽:http://www.sahajayoga.org.hk/index.html

    35、《大般若波罗蜜多经》vol. 9, T. 5, p.45a。

    36、《周易系辞上传》,上海古籍出版社,1989。

    37、《道德经》,陕西旅游出版社, 2004。

    38、鸠摩罗什译《金刚般若波罗蜜经》,T8, p.756c。

    39、 skt.”eka-pinda” (Conze, Vajracchedika Prajnaparamita, p. 60. SOR. Vol.13, Is.M.E.O., 1957)及吉藏《金刚般若疏》,vol.4中“世界一合相者。若微尘世界相对。微尘喻十方法身不一。世界喻十方法身不异。但论意用微尘通喻不一异。” (T33. p.123a)。

    40《妙法莲华经》,vol. 7, T. 9, p.57a。

    41、《神僧传》,vol.3, T. 50, pp.961c-963a。

    42、张颖清《全息生物学》,高等教育出版社,1989。

    43、《一切如来心秘密全身舍利宝箧印陀罗尼经》, T19, p.713a-b。

    44、《般若心经秘键》,《定弘全》,vol. 3, p.3。

    45、《大正藏-史传部二-神僧卷第二》,pp.957-958。

    46、《大正藏-史传部二-神僧卷第七》,pp.996-997。

    47、《大正藏-史传部二-神僧卷第七》,pp.996-996。

    48、《大正藏-史传部二-神僧卷第八》,pp.995-996。

    49、《大正藏-史传部二-神僧卷第八》,pp.1001-1002。

    50、《大正藏-大般若波罗蜜多经卷第三初分学观品第二之一》。

    51、《大正藏—大般若波罗蜜多经卷第三百四十六》。

    52、《水之传言》:

    http://www.thank-water.net/picture-book/Picture%20Book.pdf


    日文版本:

    空海の入定留身と現代科学の哲学観

     

    日文 平成19年度修士论文

     

    高野山大学

     

    大学院文学研究科

     

    密教学専攻修士课程

     

    李新正(释真圆)

     

    目次

     

    はじめに

     

    四、空海の入定留身

     

    五、肉身不壊の现代科学的哲学理论の仮説

     

    仮説1、仏教の修行は我々の物质的な体の构成を変えられるか

     

    仮説2、修行は我々の身体の构成を変えられるか

     

    仮説3、物质の精神科と精神の物质化(肉身不壊・舎利・虹)

     

    仮説4、修行者による「精神エネルギーの场」

     

    六、仏教修行における神通力の意味と现代哲学的な解釈に関する仮説

     

    1、问题の所在

     

    2、経典解釈

     

    3、六度の现代科学的な哲学観とそのホログラフィーの意味

     

    4、六神通の现代科学的哲学理论観の仮説

     

    神足通天眼通天耳通他心通宿命通漏尽通

     

    5、神通力の例

     

    鸠摩罗什金刚智不空善无畏一行

     

    6、神通力の现代哲学観仮説

     

    四、戒めのホロフラフィックの意义:

     

    五、三密加持の仮説

     

    六、摩诃不思议な现象の现代哲学の仮説

     

    まとめ

     

    はじめに

     

    周知の通り、空海は、804年に唐に渡り、慧果和尚から両部の大法を授けられ、日本に帰って、日本の真言密教を创立したのである。832年(天长九年)11月、空海は高雄山(神护寺)から高野山に移って、谷类を断ち、坐禅修法に専念した(1)。834年後、承和元年五月には「吾れ永く山に皈らん」とし、都から高野に戻って、弟子に御遗戒を説き(2)、九月には入定の场所を定めた。それから、1115日に、高弟・真然に山を托すことを表明した(3)。同时に、翌年の321日、寅の刻に入定することを予告したのである(4)。

     

    入定とは、死ぬことではなく、生死の境界を超え、弥勒出世まで兜率天にあって、衆生を済うことをいうのである(5)。さて、『御遗告』が発表された4日後には、宗派の今後のことを奏请するために、最终的に上京した(6)。

     

    それから、彼は315日、三通の御遗告を遗し、御影堂北の中院にて、勅赐の御椅子の上に结跏趺坐し、手に大日の定印を结び、入定准备に入った。弟子たちが弥勒の宝号を唱え続ける中で行われた。空海は目を闭じて、言叶を発さなくなった。日时共に予告の通りに行なわれた。入定の日については、元日から数え、八十一日间の釈迦八十三歳入灭に通じるというような神秘的な説もある。『御遗告』は空海真撰ではない説もあるが(7)、空海の入定にまつわるエピソードは、信仰の中に息づき今日も生きている。

     

    四十九日间の供养が终わると、弟子たちは师を舆に乗せて、奥の院内に运んだ。その御庙所は、地下一丈五尺(约3.2m)の所に一间(约1.8m)四方の石室を设けたもので、そこにしつらえた厨子に身体を安置し、石室内に出入できるように计らいも施されていた。

     

    时が経って、真然の孙弟子であり东寺九代目长者となった観贤(853-925)は、长年间、空海の入定身を确かめたがっていた。彼が空海への大师諡号を二度目に奏请した际、醍醐帝が空海の霊梦を见たこともあり、諡号「弘法大师」下赐と送衣の仪が行われた。空海入定後、87年が経った延喜二十一(921)年十月二十七日のことである。観贤は、二人の弟子に御衣等を捧げ持たせ、庙内に入った。石室の中がはっきり见えなかったため、観贤は自分の罪障の深さを悔いた。すると、云雾が晴れるようになって空海の入定身が认识された。御衣は破れ、髪は伸び垂れ、膝を埋めるところだった。弟子の淳佑には空海の姿を认识されなかったが、师の导きの下で、膝に触ると、柔らかくて温かかったと言われている(8)。

     

    一、空海の肉身入定

     

    弘法大师空海は、六十二歳に肉身が尽入定され、其の肉身は今も奥の院で礼拝されている。空海に対する研究の中、其の入定の意味については研究者によって、いろいろと完璧的に解釈されたけれども、ほとんど密教の理论上の解釈にしかならない。

     

    経典『大般若波罗蜜多经卷第五十三——初分辩大乘品第十五之三』には、

     

    “复次善现。若菩萨摩诃萨修行般若波罗蜜多时。以无所得而为方便。往澹泊路观所弃屍。死经一日或经二日乃至七日。其身膖胀。色变青瘀。臭烂皮穿。脓血流出。”(9

     

    とある。つまり、この経典の中でも、人が死んだ後、死体が腐乱可能に変质すると明确に解釈されている。つまり観点は现代医学科学の観点と完全に一致している。

     

    では、なぜ肉身不壊になるのか。现代の医学知识によって、人体が死亡以後、大肠菌群はすばやく细胞组织を分解する。したがって、死体もすばやく腐乱することになる。空海の死体はなぜ腐乱しないのか?実は、このことは非常に简単な问题であって、仏教徒と一般の衆生との区别でもある。肉身不壊は、现代医学の観念と歴然と矛盾するのである。

     

    なぜ仏教の修行によって、その金刚不壊の结果が出るのだろうか。この问题を解釈すると、仏教は不可知论に陥ると判断される。仏法は真理なるものであり、现代科学哲学のような真理が込められている。したがって、真理は真理をもって説明できることとなる。従来の研究の着目点は「仏法理论」の研究であって、现代科学哲学からの研究方法を见落としてきた。もともと、釈尊の时には文字がなかったが、釈尊の弟子たちは仏教を説明するために文字を借りて仏法を発扬したわけである。もし私たちが文字だけに固执すると、仏法を悟ることはとても难しくなる。

     

    弘法大师は、今成仏しているのか。もし今成仏しているのであれば、弥勒信仰という説が问题になる。弥勒菩萨は、典型的な顕教に属して信仰しているので、密教のように即身成仏を唱道しているのとは完全に违う理念である。空海と弥勒信仰を结びつけたのは、时代が求めた信仰上の便宜であるのかもしれない(10)。

     

    仏教の时间概念によれば、过去・现在・未来は実は同一した时点である。われわれがこの理念を受け取ると、「即身成佛」と、弘法大师の「弥勒信仰」——「弥勒菩萨が降りてくることを待つ」とはちっとも矛盾しないのである。现代物理学の知识は、われわれに物体の运动の速度と光の速度と同じである场合、时间は止まってしまうことを教えた。またもし物体の运动速度が光の速度を超えるならば、时间は逆転してしまい、过去に戻ることができるだろう。认识された物质が光を超えるかは知らないが、人间の「意念」は完全に光の速度を超えることができる。この问题は、一见证明しにくいが、理念は通じるのである。同时に、人间の「意念」は、また思惟を逆転させることができ,われわれが昨日・一昨日の过去を记忆するようになる。仏教信徒の中、唯识论派の重要な观点である「三界唯心」は,物质实体——色,ただ幻影であって、阳炎のような、空花のようなものである。人间の「意念」は「心」——精神の表现形式の一つである。したがって、「三界唯心」,すなわち过去・现在・未来は心によって転じられるといえる(11)。

     

    「空」も一つの相対的な概念であるが,一般常识からいうと,「空」はまさに「无」である。人体の一つの细胞は人体に相対してみると空である。人间を地球に相対してみるとまた空である。地球を太阳系に相対してみるとまた空である。さらに、太阳系を银河系に相対すると空であり,银河系を无限の宇宙に相対すると空になる。宇宙のすべての天球一つにしてみても、宇宙の中では依然として空になる。

     

    空の解釈も、现代哲学的な解釈の方法を用いないと、一般の人々が理解するには难しいだろう。説教と説理は大きな区别がある。その意味で、现代哲学的の解釈方法は有効である。

     

    肉身不壊とは、経典の解釈だけにとどまるのだろうか。経典の中では、肉体不壊についてどのように解釈しているのだろうか。

     

    もっとも早く肉体の记録をしたのは谁だろうか。それは中国の禅宗の第六祖である慧能である。彼は七十六歳の时、新州の国恩寺で入灭され、その肉体は今も完全に保存されている(図表一を参照)。

     

    慧能,(638713年)唐代の僧侣。惠能とも呼ぶ。中国の禅宗第六祖であり,号は六祖大师、大鉴禅师である。祖籍は范阳(河北),俗姓は卢である。南海新兴(广东)の生れである。国恩寺に住居し,先天元年(712)に,寺内に报恩塔を建设させた。翌年七月,国恩寺に戻り,八月に寂した。世寿七十六歳であった。慧能の肉身が不坏し,今も留身され,曹溪に保存されている。宪宗の时、谥号「大鉴禅师」が赠られた。宋太宗の太平兴国年(976983)には、谥号「真宗禅师」が加えられる。その後、仁宗から谥号「普觉禅师」,神宗から「圆明禅师」という谥号を授けられる『五灯会元卷一_—六祖慧能大鉴禅师』(12)。

     

    もっとも早く禅定に入ることを记録したのは谁だろうか。この人は、仏陀の弟子である迦叶かもしれない。『五灯会元卷一_一祖摩诃迦叶尊者』の中には、次の如くある。

     

    迦叶告阿难曰:「汝今宜宣法眼。」阿难闻语信受,观察众心而宣偈言:「比丘诸眷属,离佛不庄严。犹如虚空中,众星之无月。」说是偈已,礼众僧足,升法座而宣是言:「如是我闻。一时佛住某处说某经教,乃至人天等作礼奉行。」时迦叶问诸比丘:「阿难所言,不错谬乎?」皆曰:「不异世尊所说。」迦叶乃告阿难言:「我今年不久留,今将正法付嘱与汝。汝善守护,听吾偈言:法法本来法,无法无非法。何与一法中,有法有不法?」说偈已,乃持僧伽梨衣入鸡足山,俟慈氏下生。即周孝王五年丙辰岁也(13)。

     

    经典によれば,迦叶尊者は阿难に法を受けた後、鸡足山で入定された。迦叶尊者は、佛陀荼毗の後の第一入定者である。现在、彼は鶏足山というとことに禅定しながら、弥勒仏陀の出生を待っている。

     

    唐代から、现在にいたるまで、年毎に僧侣あるいは尼僧が入灭後に、肉身が不坏する现象がずっと现れている。たとえば、中国の伝统的な地藏菩萨の道场である九华山に、僧侣の肉身不坏が数十人あった。いくつかは现在まで完全に保存されている。しかし、一部は「文化大革命」で破壊されてしまった。九华山の记载によれば、以下のような金地藏の肉身がある。仁义师太(比丘尼)真身、华德真身、隆山、法龙、常恩肉身、明净、大兴、慈明、德风、定慧、圣传、无瑕和尚等である。このほかにも、台湾などのほかの地域にも、僧侣の肉身不坏の记载が残されている。ここでは、いちいち罗列しないことにする(14)。

     

    肉身不壊とは、成仏の证拠として认めるだけで十分だろうか。修行して成仏するには、その方法は多くある。中でも最も受け入れられているのは「肉身不壊」と「舎利」である。しかし、仏徒以外の人のなかでも肉身不壊と舎利の现象が同じく発生することがある。たとえば、フランスの圣女のBERNADETTE15)。

     

    顕教は、大きく三つの大劫を経て成仏する。密教は即身成仏することができる。密教の教义に基づけば、我々は三大劫を経ずして成仏することが出来る。このことは经典あるいは空海大师の论述のなかでも详しく书かれてあって、真言宗行者にとって、谁にも驯染んでいる。

     

    では、肉体不壊の概念と肉体入定の概念は同じであるだろうか。肉体不壊と肉体入定は実は违う概念である。空海の场合は、入灭されたのはただ肉体不壊であった。この立场で言えば、仏教の肉身不坏であれ、异教の肉身不坏であれ,その形成原理は当然ながら同じである。しかし密教の解释によると、すべての有情は、皆大日如来の等流身であるため、名相は违うが,仏性は完全に同じである。ところが、もし肉身不坏を成仏した身であるとするならば、説明としては不充分である。なぜかというと、结局のところ成仏は、必ず六神通を具备しなければならないからである(16)。厳密的に言えば、成仏も「理」成仏——觉悟と、「事」成仏——六神通を具备することに分けなければならないからである。

     

    二、肉身不坏の现代科学的哲学理论の仮説

     

    仮説1、仏教の修行は我々の物质的な体の构成を変えられるか。

     

    まず、明白しなければならないことがある。仏法の如法に基づいて修行しなかった场合、われわれの身体は、すべての生命体と同じく生老病死するだろう。しかし、「死」だけ如法に修行したら、行者の「死」は一般の未修行者の死とは完全に违うものとなるだろう。このことは、行者特に大德高僧が入灭した後に现れる。たとえば、高僧を荼毗(火葬)すると、舍利が生じるだろう(17)。高僧は、肉身不坏するだけではなく、ある者は「虹身——火光三昧」もするだろう。「舍利」と「肉身不坏」、「虹身」は、修行が确実に我々の身体の物质の构成を変えられることを充分に説明している。我々の顔つきすら変えられることができる。この仮説については、後ろで説明をすることにする。

     

    「虹身」の概念について説明を加える。「虹身」は、「虹化」あるいは「火光三昧」ともいう。つまり、行者が入灭のさい、体が五彩の光をもってから消失することをいう(彩虹)。密教の六大学说によれば,行者が入灭すると、身体は地、水、火、风、空に戻ってしまう。だが识は、灵魂の表现であり,精神の情报である。故に、上记の圣迹は、物质(地水火风空)が精神(识)に转化したことと理解できるだろう。

     

    『五灯会元巻一_释迦牟尼佛』には、次の记载がある。

     

    「尔时世尊至拘尸那城,告诸大众」「吾今背痛,欲入涅磐。」即往熙连河侧,娑罗双树下,右股累足,泊然宴寂。复从棺起,为母说法。特示双足化婆耆,并说无常偈曰:「诸行无常,是生灭法。生灭灭已,寂灭为乐。」时诸弟子即以香薪竞荼毗之,烬後金棺如故。尔时大众即於佛前,以偈赞曰:「凡俗诸猛炽,何能致火爇,请尊三昧火,闍维金色身。」尔时全棺座而举,高七多罗树,往返空中,化火三昧。须臾灰生,得舍利八斛四斗。即穆王五十二年壬申岁二月十五日也。」(18

    上记の记载からもわかるように,释迦牟尼佛の荼毗は自然の火ではできない。自身三昧という真の火である。自然の火はすべてを焼き払うことができるが、世尊の棺はなぜ焼き払うことができないのか。その理由は、物质の火は精神の体を焼き払うことができないからである。なぜなら、世尊の身体は修行によって変化が生じられているから焼き払うことができないのである。

     

    西天の二祖である阿难尊者は三昧について戒めたことがある。

     

    『五灯会元巻一_二祖阿难尊者』には、次に记载がある。

     

    「王闻,失声号恸,哀感天地。即至毗舍离城,见尊者在恒河中流,跏趺而坐。王乃作礼,而说偈曰:「稽首三界尊,弃我而至此,暂凭悲愿力,且莫般涅盘。」时毗舍离王亦在河侧,说偈言:「尊者一何速,而归寂灭场;愿住须臾间,而受於供养。」尊者见二国王咸来劝请,乃说偈言:「二王善严住,勿为苦悲恋。涅盘当我静,而无诸有故。」尊者复念:「我若偏向一国,诸国争竞,无有是处,应以平等度诸有情。遂於恒河中流,将入寂灭。是时山河大地,六种震动,雪山有五百仙人,覩兹瑞应,飞空而至,礼尊者足,胡跪白言:「我於长老,当证佛法,愿垂大慈,度脱我等。」尊者默然受请,即变殑伽河悉为金地,为其仙众说诸大法。尊者复念:先所度脱弟子应当来集。须臾,五百罗汉从空而下,为诸仙人出家授具。其仙众中有二罗汉:一名商那和修,二名末田底迦。尊者知是法器,乃告之曰:「昔如来以大法眼付大迦叶,迦叶入定而付於我;我今将灭,用传於汝。汝受吾教,当听偈言:本来付有法,付了言无法。各各须自悟,悟了无无法。」尊者付法眼藏竟,踊身虚空,现十八变入风奋迅三昧。分身四分:一分奉忉利天,一分奉娑竭罗龙宫,一分奉毗舍离王,一分奉阿闍世王。各造宝塔而供养之。乃厉王十二年癸巳岁也。」(19

     

    『五灯会元』の卷一には、仏灭度後、西天(古印度)の诸祖の大多数は、渐次に「火光三昧」に入ったと记载されている。次に示しておこう。

     

    1)第三祖の商那和修尊者

     

    「乃告曰:昔如来以无上法眼付嘱迦叶。展转相授,而至於我;我今付汝,勿令断绝。汝受吾教,听吾偈言:非法亦非心,无心亦无法。说是心法时,是法非心法。」说偈已,即隐於罽宾国南象白山中。後於三昧中,见弟子鞠多有五百徒众,常多懈慢。尊者乃往彼,现龙奋迅三昧以调伏之。而说偈曰:通达非彼此,至圣无长短。汝除轻慢意,疾得阿罗汉。五百比丘闻偈已,依教奉行,皆获无漏。尊者乃现十八变火光三昧,用焚其身。鞠多收舍利,葬於梵迦罗山。五百比丘各持一幡,迎导至彼,建塔供养。乃宣王二十二年乙未岁也」(20

     

    2)第五祖の提多迦尊者

     

    「尊者示大神通,於是俱发菩提心,一时出家。者乃告弥遮迦曰:昔如来以大法眼藏密付迦叶,展转相授,而至於我。我今付汝,当护念之。乃说偈曰:通达本法心,无法无非法。悟了同未悟,无心亦无法。说偈已,踊身虚空作十八变,火光三昧,自焚其躯。弥遮迦与八千比丘同收舍利,於班荼山中起塔供养。即庄王五年己丑岁也。」(21

     

    3)第六祖の弥遮迦尊者

     

    「乃告之曰:正法眼藏,今付於汝,勿令断绝。乃说偈曰:无心无可得,说得不名法。若了心非心,始解心心法。祖说偈已,入师子奋迅三昧,踊身虚空,高七多罗树,却复本座,化火自焚。婆须蜜收灵骨,贮七宝函,建浮图寘于上级。即襄王十五年甲申岁也。」(22

     

    4)第十祖の胁尊者

     

    「十祖胁尊者,中印度人也。本名难生。初将诞时,父梦一白象,背有宝座,座上安一明珠,从门而入,光照四众,既觉遂生。从值九祖,执侍左右,未尝睡眠,谓其胁不至席,遂号胁尊者焉。初至华氏国,憩一树下。右手指地而告众曰:此地变金色,当有圣人入会。言讫,即变金色。时有长者子富那夜奢,合掌前立。祖问曰:汝从何来?荅曰:我心非往。祖曰:汝何处住?荅曰:我心非止。祖曰:汝不定邪?曰:诸佛亦然。祖曰:汝非诸佛。曰:诸佛亦非。祖因说偈曰:此地变金色,预知有圣至。当坐菩提树,觉华而成已。夜奢复说偈曰:师坐金色地,常说真实义。回光而照我,令入三摩谛。祖知其意,即度出家,复具戒品,乃告之曰:如来大法藏,今付於汝,汝护念之。乃说偈曰:真体自然真,因真说有理。领得真真法,无行亦无止。祖付法已,即现神变而入涅盘,化火自焚。四众各以衣祴盛舍利,随处与塔而供养之。即贞王二十七年己亥岁也。」(23

     

    5)第十三祖の迦毗摩罗尊者

     

    「祖遂与徒众诣彼,龙树出迎曰:深山孤寂,龙蟒所居。大德至尊,何枉神足?祖曰:吾非至尊,来访贤者。龙树默念曰:此师得决定性明道眼否?是大圣继真乘否?祖曰:汝虽心语,我已意知。但办出家,何虑吾之不圣?龙树闻已,悔谢。祖即与度脱,及五百龙众俱授具戒。复告之曰:今以如来大法眼藏,付嘱於汝。谛听偈言:非隐非显法,说是真实际。悟此隐显法,非愚亦非智。付法已,即现神变,化火焚身。龙树收五色舍利,建塔焉。即赧王四十六年壬辰岁也。」(24

     

    6)第十五祖の迦那提婆尊者

     

    「彼既夙闻祖名,乃悔过致谢。时众中犹互兴问难,祖折以无碍之辩,由是归伏。乃告上足罗候罗多而付法眼。偈曰:本对传法人,为说解脱理。於法实无证,无终亦无始。祖说偈已,入奋迅定,身放八光,而归寂灭。学众兴塔而供养之。即前汉文帝十九年庚辰岁也。」(25

     

    7)第十八祖の伽耶舍多尊者

     

    「十八祖伽耶舍多尊者,摩提国人也。姓郁头蓝,父天盖,母方圣。尝梦大神持监,因而有娠。凡七日而诞,肌体莹如琉璃,未尝洗沐,自然香洁。幼好闲静,语非常童。持监出游,遇难提尊者。得度後,领徒至大月氏国。见一婆罗门舍有异气,祖将入彼舍,舍主鸠摩罗多问曰:是何徒众?祖曰:是佛弟子。彼闻佛号,心神竦然,即时闭户。祖良久扣其门,罗多曰:此舍无人。祖曰:答无者谁?罗多闻语,知是异人,遽开关延接。祖曰:昔世尊记曰:吾灭後一千年,有大士出现於月氏国,绍隆玄化。今汝值吾,应斯嘉运。於是鸠摩罗多发宿命智,投诚出家。授具讫,付法偈曰:有种有心地,因缘能发萌。於缘不相碍,当生生不生。祖付法已,踊身虚空,现十八种神变,化火光三昧,自焚其身。众以舍利起塔。当前汉成帝二十年戊申岁也。」(26

     

    8)第十九祖の鸠摩罗多尊者

     

    「十九祖鸠摩罗多尊者,大月氏国婆罗门之子也。昔为自在天人。见菩萨璎珞,忽起爱心,堕生忉利。闻憍尸迦说般若波罗蜜多,以法胜故,升于梵天色界。以根利故,善说法要,诸天尊为导师。以继祖时至,遂降月氏。後至中天竺国,有大士名闍夜多,问曰:我家父母素信三宝,而常萦疾瘵,凡所营作,皆不如意;而我邻家久为旃陀罗行,而身常勇健,所作和合。彼何幸,而我何辜?祖曰:何足疑乎!且善恶之报有三时焉:凡人但见仁夭暴寿、逆吉义凶,便谓亡因果、虚罪福,殊不知影响相随,毫厘靡忒。纵经百千万劫,亦不磨灭。时闍夜多闻是语已,顿释所疑。祖曰:汝虽已信三业,而未明业从惑生,惑因识有,识依不觉,不觉依心。心本清净,无生灭,无造作,无报应,无胜负,寂寂然,灵灵然。汝若入此法门,可与诸佛同矣。一切善恶、有为无为,皆如梦幻。」闍夜多承言领旨,即发宿慧,恳求出家。既受具,祖告曰:吾今寂灭时至,汝当绍行化迹。乃付法眼,偈曰:性上本无生,为对求人说。於法既无得,何怀决不决。又云:此是妙音如来见性清净之句,汝宜传布後学。言讫,即於座上,以指爪剺面,如红莲开出,大光明照耀四众,而入寂灭。闍夜多起塔。当新室十四年壬午岁也。」(27

     

    9)第二十五祖の婆舍斯多尊者

     

    「王曰:佛灭已千二百载,师从谁得邪?祖曰:饮光大士,亲受佛印,展转至二十四世师子尊者,我从彼得。王曰:予闻师子比丘不能免於刑戮,何能传法後人?祖曰:我师难未起时,密授我信衣法偈,以显师承。王曰:其衣何在?祖即於囊中出衣示王。王命焚之,五色相鲜,薪尽如故。王即追悔致礼。师子真嗣既明,乃赦密多。密多遂求出家。祖问曰:汝欲出家,当为何事?密多曰:我若出家,不为其事。祖曰:不为何事?密多曰:不为俗事。祖曰:当为何事?密多曰:当为佛事。祖曰:太子智慧天至,必诸圣降迹。即许出家。六年侍奉,後於王宫受具。羯磨之际,大地震动,颇多灵异。祖乃命之曰:吾已衰朽,安可久留?汝当善护正法眼藏,普济群有。听吾偈曰:圣人说知见,当境无是非。我今悟真性,无道亦无理。不如密多闻偈,再启祖曰:法衣宜可传授。祖曰:此衣为难故,假以证明;汝身无难,何假其衣?化被十方,人自信向。不如密多闻语,作礼而退。祖现于神变,化三昧火自焚,平地舍利可高一尺。德胜王创浮图而秘之。当东晋明帝太宁三年乙酉岁也。」(28

     

    10)第二十六祖の不如密多尊者

     

    「後,王与尊者同车而出,见缨络童子稽首於前,祖曰:汝忆往事否?童曰:我念远劫中,与师同居。师演摩诃般若,我转甚深修多罗,今日之事,盖契昔因。祖又谓王曰:此童子非他,即大势至菩萨是也。此圣之後,复出二人:一人化南印度,一人缘在震旦。四五年内,却返此方。遂以昔因,故名般若多罗。付法眼藏,偈曰:真性心地藏,无头亦无尾。应缘而化物,方便呼为智。祖付法已,即辞王曰:吾化缘已终,当归寂灭。愿王於最上乘,无忘外护。即还本座,跏趺而逝,化火自焚。收舍利塔而瘗之。当东晋孝武帝太元十三年戊子岁也。」(29

     

    11)第二十七祖の般若多罗尊者

     

    「及香至王厌世,众皆号绝。唯第三子菩提多罗於柩前入定。经七日而出,乃求出家。既受具戒,祖告曰:如来以正法眼付大迦叶,如是展转,乃至於我。我今嘱汝,听吾偈曰:心地生诸种,因事复生理。果满菩提圆,华开世界起。尊者付法已,即於座上起立,舒左右手,各放光明二十七道,五色光耀。又踊身虚空,高七多罗树,化火自焚。空中舍利如雨,收以建塔,当宋孝武帝大明元年丁酉岁。祖因东印度国王请,祖斋次,王乃问:诸人尽转经,唯师为甚不转?祖曰:贫道出息不随众缘,入息不居蕴界,常转如是经百千万亿卷,非但一卷两卷。」(30

     

    以上、西天の诸祖の入灭圣相は、修行がわれわれの物质的な身体を変えられることを充分に説明している。同时に,物质が精神に转化できることを説明している。

     

    仮説2、修行はわれわれの身体の构成を変えられるか。

     

    このことは、修行によって我々の身体が细菌(大肠菌の群)によって分解・破壊されないようになるからである。あるいは我々の身体が细菌と同化し、互いに认め排他的な反応が生じないからである。

     

    中国の古代、仏教修行者の中で「跳出三界外、不在五行中」という名言がある。つまり三界というのは「贪嗔痴」の三毒である。「五行」は、儒教道教のなかの哲学の名词であるが、天地万物を「土木水火金」の五种に分别することである。仏教の「地水火风空」の五大と类似している。言い换えれば、「跳出三界外、不在五大中」と。「贪嗔痴」の三毒を断ち切るには必ず如法に修行をすることが必要で、その结果は三界の拘束を受けない。つまり修行して三界を超越すると、我々の物质的な身体の「五行」が変化を起こし、「五行规律」の制约から离脱できる。「五行」の変化は渐次変わることがあっても、勤勉に经律论の三藏を読み,絶えず思修し,慈悲深い心で六度万行を施すことが必要である。そうすれば自分の身体の「五行」の构成が平衡で圆满であることを感じることが出来る。「五行の场」を完成し、外界の五行要素の変化によっても、激しく変化することはない。言い换えれば、我々の体は「五行」の制限を受けなくなり、三界を超越(跳びだす)するのである。

     

    毎日の朝、食堂で「虫食偈」を咏むと、「私の体は八万戸あり、それぞれ九亿虫がいる。济彼身命受信施,私が仏になると先にあなたを救う」。我、众生、如来は三三平等で、六度万行はわれわれの身体の细菌を组织の细菌とを「平等」にさせる。さらに、我々の身体细胞の一部になるようにする「免疫」が落ちてない限りは、细胞の间に攻撃などが起こさないようにする。

     

    免疫系统は、一つ一つの固体が「非自体物质」を识别するものであって、(通常は外来的な病菌である)、その「非自体物质」を消灭、排除したものに対する细胞全体の反応の総称である。これは、细胞自身あるいは组织から非自体物质を识别できる(病毒から寄生虫まで全部)。外来物の识别の难しさは、病菌が新しい方式に适応および进化して、宿主を感染させるからである(31)。

     

    しかし、我々固体の遗伝の差异および我々自身の「霊魂」の流転の业力の差异によって、同じく修行したとしても、异なる个体はやはり结果としては异なる。だから、修行者の全员が同じように舍利と肉身不坏が现れるのではない。じつは、「遗伝基因」と「业力」は、同じ概念でありながら不同の表现である。すなわち、同じ要因の物质表现と精神化の表现である。

     

    仮説3、肉身不坏、舎利、虹とは、物质の精神化と精神の物质化の表现である。

     

    人间の身体は、大体二つに分けられる。物质化の肉体と精神化の霊魂である。ところが、この二つは身体という意味では、一体化されたものであって、不可分である。しかし、物质と精神の性质はやはり违う概念である。ゆえに、我々はこの二つの间に「临界状态」があると仮説できる。ここで言う「临界状态」は、物质化だけの构成としてみるのではない。纯粹な理论的な仮説である。なぜなら、生命体の存在状态の下で、肉体と精神は不可分的であるためである。

     

    现代医学の知识によれば、われわれの体には二つの抑制系统がある。つまり、神经系统と内分泌系统である。ところが、伝统的な汉方医学では、経络系统を坚持し、认めてきた。长い汉方医学歴史も経络系统の存在は疑うことではないとして证明している。しかし、现代西洋の科学者は、物质の実证手段をもって経络を研究してきたが、精神を含めた人间全体から见ると、小しの晶体しか発见していない。つまり、経络の物质的な基础さえも证明できていないのである。

     

    では、経络はいったいどんなものであるのか。以下に见ていく。

     

    経络理论を探ってみよう。「経」は「径」の意味をもっている。路径が各所に通じており、通达していくようなものである。直行的な主干线である。「络」は「网」の意味である。横断する网络を连结するものである。旁枝ともいえる。この网络は、人体の上下、左右、前後、内外等を连结し,深く浅くに五脏(心、肝、脾、肺、肾)、六腑(胆、胃、大肠、小肠、膀胱、三焦)、头面、躯干、四肢等を全て连结している。真气で全身の细胞生理を促进する役割をする。生命を顕现する现象である。

     

    修行者は、この経络を十二経脉、奇経八脉、十二経别、十二経筋、十五络,および多くの络脉と孙络脉などの総称であると言っている。

     

    経络の役割について触れておく。経络は气血を通し、人の栄养と活动功能を维持させる役割をする。これ以外に、また「卫气」が体表の経络のなかで运行させる役割をする。このような卫气は、人体の健康を保护し、疾病の侵犯を防疫する役割をする。つまり、経络は正常の状态では、外界の病菌が侵入することを防ぐ役割をする。経络が、人体の内外、上下などの全部を一つに连结するために、内外环境の统一と平衡を保つことができるのである。

     

    气が通るとは、百脉が滞りなく通じるということである。気が诘まってしまうと、百病が起こることになる。これは、长い年月の真理である。したがって、气血の运行は経络が通じているか否かによって决められている。このことは汉方医学に详しい人は谁もが知っている。人体の経络は触ることができないが、确実に存在すると信じられている。现在、世界各地に流行している経穴の指圧,针灸の治疗はすべてがこれをもとにしている。

     

    実际、人体の経络は人体の脏腑および体表のバランスを取る役割をしている。経络が通じて、気血が全身で运行できることは、身体の各器官のエネルギーを补充することとなる。逆に経络が塞がれると、外の悪いものが体表に入りやすくなり、人体の各処が病気になって现れる(32)。(经络の図表三である)

     

    十二経脉とは、人体気血を构成し运行する主な通路である。十五络は、本经の脉络に沿って循行する。互いに表里する阴経と阳経の沟を通じさせて、十二経脉が四肢のなかで互いに转注できる纽带となる。これらは十二経の全体的な运行にかかわっている。奇経八脉とは、络脏腑にも属さなく,表里の配偶もないため,特殊な机能として「奇経八脉」と呼ぶ。経络系统のなかでは、十二経脉を主体とする。このほかに、奇経八脉の中、任督二脉がもっとも重要であるため,十二経脉と一绪に十四経と呼ぶ。

     

    十二经脉の各经脉には、それが属する脏腑が在る。手足の三阴三阳とそれぞれが属する脏腑から命名されている。脏に属するのは阴经、腑に属するのを阳经と呼ぶ。

     

    手三阴经とは、手太阴肺经、手少阴心经、手厥阴心包经である。

     

    手三阳经とは、手阳明大肠经、手太阳小肠经、手少阳三焦经である。

     

    足三阴经とは、足太阴脾经、足少阴肾经、足厥阴肝经である。

     

    足三阳经とは、足阳明胃经、足太阳膀胱经、足少阳胆经である。

    督脉とは、脊背にいて,诸阳经が集まるところが督脉であるため,总督一身になる阳经である。总督一身する阳气の役割があるため,「阳脉の海」とも呼ぶ。

     

    任脉は、胸腹の正中にある线で,全身の阴经が集まるところであるため,全身の阴气を総督する役割があるため,「阴脉の海」とも呼ぶ。

     

    人体は正常の状态では、经络の机能と役割は规律的である。『黄帝内经——灵枢——经别第十一』には、このように书いてある。「夫十二经脉者,人之所以生,病之所以成,人之所以治,病之所以起,学之所以始,工之所止也。」(33)もし、病気が発生すると症候が表われる。この规律を知って、变化を観察することができると、生理、病理、诊断、治疗等での识别・治疗の根拠になる。

     

    『黄帝内经——灵枢——经别第十一』には「经脉者,所以行血气而营阴阳,濡筋骨,利关节者也。」(33)とある。经络はまるで、一つの网络系统のように、气血を输送し,五脏六腑、四肢关节、筋骨皮肉等を连结して全身に伝えられていく。そこで人体の脏腑、四肢、百骸、皮毛、肌肉、血脉等の组织と器官は、有机的な全体的な活动をすることができる。气血は人体の生命活动の物质基础であるため,必ず经络の运行に基づいて行わないと、全身に伝えることができない。温をもって、全身の各脏腑の组织器官を润沢し、身体の正常的な机能を维持する。これによってこそ、正常的な生理活动を进行することができる。つまり、气血を通じさせ,全身に栄养を与え,身体の机能を调整し、身体の防御能力を高めるのである。

     

    以上からして、われわれは经络系统が人体の物质と精神の临界状态であると仮説することができるのである。二种类の状态の特性を现すということである。言い换えれば、经络系统は必ず物质化の表しと精神化の表しがある。実际、经络は确かにこのような特点がある。これにより、われわれの物质的な体は调整できるのである。

     

    瑜珈术の「三脉七轮」にも似たような役割を述べている。

     

    人体の三脉:

     

    中脉,海底轮(尾骶骨下端)から始まる。人体の脊椎前に沿って、上に向って脑に直达し、顶轮の後に至って,前のほうに曲がって,两眉の间の眉心に直达する。眉心は、また各种の宇宙のエネルギーが人体に入る通路でもある。修持をとおして,中脉が顶门处にある通口を打开すると、宇宙のエネルギーが体内に进入し、人体神识が人体を跳び出すもっともふさわしい通路となる。

     

    生理机能からみると、中脉は人体の脊椎の前に位置して、脑につながる。中脉の修持は,直接人体の脊椎と脑の机能のために锻えてある。脑と脊椎は、人体の神经系统であって、脑と脊椎管内の脊髓は人体の中枢神经である。脑の表面には、12对脑神经がある。脊髓の两侧は、また31对脊髓神经に繋がれている。内脏神経が分けられ、三者が人体の周囲神経系统を构成する。

     

    左右の二脉は人体の左右の二つの鼻の穴につながる。上は脑につながり,夹中脉は下につながる。平等に脐下四指のところの生法宫に置かれてあって、中脉と会合する。そのなか、左脉を水脉とし、阴に属するため、太阴脉と呼び、右脉を火脉とし、阳に属するため、太阳脉と呼ぶ。

     

    左右の二脉は脊椎前の中脉の两侧にある。生理机能からみると、二脉と内脏神经の交感神经と副交感神经は対応する。左脉は副交感神经を主管し、右脉は交感神经を主管する。人体の三脉は、人体の全部の神经系统を管理する。瑜伽の修持をとおして,人体系统の机能を高めることができる。

     

    七轮:下から上をみると、以下の如くである。

     

    1)根轮(纯真轮MoodadharaChakra

     

    2)腹轮(真知轮SwadisthanChakra

     

    3)脐轮(正道轮NabhiManipuraChakra3a幻海(VoidOceanofIllusion

     

    4)心轮(仁爱轮HeartAnahataChakra

     

    5)喉轮(大同轮VishuddhiChakra

     

    6)额轮(宽恕轮AgnyaAjnaChakra

     

    7)顶轮(自觉轮SahasraraChakra

     

    (図表四である)(34

     

    瑜珈术の中の「三脉七轮」は、まだ现代医学では実证されていない。われわれは、经络と同类あるいは类似している人体の物质と精神の「临界状态」を仮设することができる。

     

    もし、经络と瑜伽の三脉七轮は、人体が精神の临界状态とはならないと仮设するならば、次のような仮説が出てくるだろう。実验室の中ではこれらの身体の物质基础を证明することができない。実际身体は确実に微妙な人体の调节机能を生じる。我々の「意念」は、我々の物质的な体を生み出し、また変化させることが出来ると理解できる。もし理论上でこの仮设が正しければ、三密相应のなかの本尊观想は、非常に合理的であると解释できるだろう。本尊を観想し、圆满殊胜の形象となり,精神エネルギーの役割で、我々の身体も渐次本尊と同じになっていくのである。

     

    仮设4、修行者による「精神エネルギーの场」

     

    精神エネルギーの场は、物质化として表わすことができる。このような物质化の表现は、我々の身体が病気となることが少なく、あるいは病気を生じなくすることとなる。ないし我々の生命机能が运动を停止した後も、「精神エネルギーの场」が依然として我々の肉体が大肠菌によって分解・破壊されないよう保护し、あるいはわれわれの身体が火葬されても「精神エネルギーの场」が舍利に転化する。または、「精神エネルギーの场」が我々の物质的な体を「火光三昧」の现象に変化させる。精神エネルギーと物质エネルギーは同じくすることは出来ない。精神的な属性は、物质的な実证手段によって测ることが难しいが、我々の「意念」と切っても切れない。もし、我々が、「意念」を大まかに积极と消极に分けると、积极的な「意念」が形成する精神エネルギーは、我々の物质的な身体に対して、积极的で前向きなものを加えることができる。ところが、もし消极的な「意念」であると、消极的な精神エネルギーの场を形成し、われわれの物质的な身体を衰弱させるという消极的な役割となる。仏教の修行は実际、「慈悲喜舍」の积极的な意念と行为の役割である。したがって、精神エネルギーの场は积极的で前向きである。精神エネルギーが强くなると、我々の生命体の存在状态のもとで、我々の物质的な身体をより强めることができる。だから、病気と灾难を少なくすることが出来る。これが「仏菩萨保佑」のホログラフィーの意味である。

     

    三、仏教修行における神通力の意味と现代哲学の解釈に関する仮説

     

    1.问题所在

     

    仏教哲学では、唯识论と物质论との完璧な结合と认めている。仏教では、六つの神通力がある。天眼通、天耳通、他心通、宿命通、神足通、漏尽通である。神通力とはどんな力であるのだろう。神通力を不思议な现象とみるならば、仏教と密教の修行は解釈不可能なものになる。では、神通力という能力がわれわれ自身から生まれてくるだろうか。现代科学理论の発展に伴って、このような能力も我々自身の体の中の细胞に本来持っている能力であることをわかった。以下、神通力という能力について述べていきたい。

     

    2.经典解釈

     

    『大正藏大般若波罗蜜多经卷第九——初分转生品第四之三』によれば、「复次舍利子。有菩萨摩诃萨修行般若波罗蜜多时。能引发六神通波罗蜜多。何等为六。一者神境智证通波罗蜜多。二者天耳智证通波罗蜜多。三者他心智证通波罗蜜多。四者宿住随念智证通波罗蜜多。五者天眼智证通波罗蜜多。六者漏尽智证通波罗蜜多。」(35)という记载がある。

     

    ここには非常に明确に意味を表している。波罗蜜多行方のみ六神通があらわれる。しかし、波罗蜜多はもともと智慧であるため、六神通は六波罗蜜の智慧である。经文の中の六神通を顺番に神足通、天耳通、他心通、宿命通、天眼通と漏尽通になる。六波罗蜜行は言うには简单だけど、行动するにはむずかしいことである。华译六度は,すなわち檀那(布施)、尸罗(持戒)、羼提(忍辱)、毗离耶(精进)、禅那(禅定)、般若(智慧)である。もし六度できない场合显教行者であれ密教行者であれ成仏は论じられない。六度は、必ずわれわれ生活の一言一行の隅々までいたって、如法修行が戒律を守って修行しないと、仏教の「说教者」にしかならない。

     

    3.六度の现代科学的な哲学观とそのホログラフィーの意味

     

    六神通のホログラフィーの意味を解釈する前に、われわれは必ず现代天体物理学と、さらに量子物理学の理论を认识しなければならない。

     

    大爆発理论(BigBang)は、天体物理学の宇宙起源に関する理论である。大爆発の理论に基づいて、宇宙は约一百四十亿年前に、一つの密度が高くて、温度が高い状态から演绎されてきたのである。このような初発状态の中では、宇宙の物质とエネルギーの温度、密度は极端的に高い。これ以前に何が发生したのかについては、広义相对论によると、一つの引力奇点があったというが、これについては物理学者たちは意见が统一しない。

     

    大爆発という言叶は、狭义上宇宙が最初一段时间を形成するにあたって经历した剧烈な变化である。この时间を计算すると、今から约一百三十七亿年前である。広义上では、现在流行している宇宙の起源と膨胀の理论である。この理论の直接的な推论によると、われわれが今置かれてある宇宙と以前あるいは以後に置かれる宇宙の异なりが理解できる。この理论に基づいて、前ソ连の物理学者乔治•伽莫夫は、1948年に宇宙の微波背景辐射の存在を予测した。前世纪六十年代,この辐射は探测されたことがあるため、大爆発の理论を大いに支持することができた。

     

    ここから、「奇点」理论と「黑洞」理论が出された。简単に言うと、いわゆる「奇点」というのは、质量が无限に大きく、体积が无限に小さい「点」である。宇宙は、「奇点」からどんどん膨胀してきたものである。「黑洞」は、絶えず星体を吸収し、新「奇点」に変化されたものである。実は、この道理は、中国の伝统道家の哲学の「原始反终」と同工异曲である。道家は、宇宙は「无」から起源し、「无」から「有」に演绎されたと见ている。そして再び「无」に回帰する状态を言う(自己の体认)。道儒の说は、阴阳に分别することは、実はこの「有」と「无」を指している。

     

    『周易系辞上传』には次ぎのように言っている。

     

    「天尊地卑,乾坤定矣。卑高以陈,贵贱位矣。动静有常,刚柔断矣。方以类聚,物以群分,吉凶生矣。在天成象,在地成形,变化见(现)矣。是故刚柔相摩,八卦相荡。鼓之以雷霆,润之以风雨;日月运行,一寒一暑。乾道成男,坤道成女。乾知大始,坤作成物。」(36

     

    もし、ホログラフィーの科学哲学の视点からこの段落の大意を理解するならば、「有无」、「阴阳」、あるいは「物质と精神」の相乗的、弁证的な関系を指している。

     

    宇宙の大爆発理论はすでに一般的に受け入れられている。ところが、「奇点」と「黑洞」の理论に関しては、まだ多くの新しい问题が表れている。イギリスの着名な物理学者霍金(StephenWilliamHawking)は、违う仮设を提起した。しかし、本论にはそれほど影响を与えなかった。

     

    现代科学は物质の実证研究にしか注目していない。「精神」の研究は軽视している。これはまさに、现代科学が理论の完成として不完全なところである。同じく、现代の仏教

     

    の研究も考古式文献学のみの研究に倾いている。伝统道家の经典『道德经』第四十七章には次のように书かれてある。

     

    「不出户﹐知天下﹔不窥牖﹐见天道。其出弥远﹐其知弥少。是以圣人不行而知﹐不见而明﹐无为而成。」(37

     

    この意味を简单に解释すると、「秀才は门を出ずに天下の事を知る」という意味になる。现代の実证式な(文献学を中心とする)仏教研究は、仏教を知识として学んでいる。修行によって覚悟する菩提道场では无くなっている。このような研究はわれわれを知识の海洋に埋没させるしかない。智慧を开発するには弊害多く、修行が更に无意味なものになっている。仏教本来の信仰がなくなっている。

     

    东洋哲学であれ、西洋哲学であれ、その中は大きく二つの流れに分けられる。唯物主义と唯心主义である。两派の基本的な哲学观には「物质」と「精神」の両方が内在する。二者の区别は、唯物主义は、物质を第一义とし精神を第2义に据えることである。先に物质があって精神が次にあるという観点である。つまり、物质が精神を决定することである。唯心主义は、逆に精神を第一义とし物质を第2义とする。先に精神があって、物质が次にあるということである。つまり精神が物质を决定するという観点である。だが两派の观点とも不完全なものである。最も完全なのは、両派の理论の完璧な结合である。仏法は、実に两派の理论の事实上の完壁な结合である。

     

    『金刚般若波罗蜜经』には次の如くある。

     

    「世尊。如来所说三千大千世界则非世界。是名世界。何以故。若世界实有者则是一合相。如来说一合相则非一合相。是名一合相。须菩提。一合相者则是不可说。但凡夫之人贪着其事。」(38)(39

     

    ここで言う「一合」は、「物质」と「精神」の「一合」であると理解することができる。つまり「物质」と「精神」はもともと分けられるものではない。通俗的に理解すると、物质が精神であり、精神がまさに物质である。物质は精神に転化することができるし、精神も物质に転化することができる。たとえば、我々の目の前に一つの物体があるとしよう。もし、我々が物体を移动してしまうと、先ほど物体が存在した空间は何であろう。少なくとも理论上、物体は「虚」体だと言えるだろう。しかし、実际上物体が移动されたので、もとの场所には何者も存在しない(空气に満ちられている)のである。つまり物体が移动すると精神も同时に移动する。即ち物体と精神は「一合相」である。唯物主义者には物质しか见えなく,唯心主义には精神しか见えなかったのである。不可说の「一合相」は仏家が言う宇宙观である。仏家の宇宙观のもう一つの意味は「三千大千世界」である。すなわち、「一微尘」である。「一微尘」は「三千大千世界」である。だから、法界は心にしか止らない。身外法界は相に属し,内心法界は理に属する。しかし理相は一体で,悟ったら无别で、そうではない场合には殊异になるわけである。

     

    物质と精神の哲学関系も上记と同じである。物质はわれわれが亲から遗伝された肉体と见ることができる。精神はわれわれの「灵魂」とみることができる。言い换えれば、物质と精神の関系は、まさに肉体と灵魂の关系である。物质は物质不灭定律によって生生灭灭する。しかし灵魂は则ち六道の中において不断轮回し,觉悟しなければ出离することができない。现代人は、现代科学技术に薫陶して、轮回に対して依然として信じない。しかし、仏教の理论に基づくと、灵魂はいつも「天、人、修罗、地狱、饿鬼、畜牲」の六道にある。そして不断に循环往复するのである。

     

    4、六神通の现代科学的哲学理论观の仮设:

     

    神足通というのは、思い通りにどこにも到达できる力、化身あるいは分身である。诸仏经の中で、全部佛菩萨が万千に化身される记载がある。たとえば、『妙法法华经——观世音菩萨普门品』のなかに观音菩萨が三十三种の化身に変化できる记载がる。

     

    「佛告无尽意菩萨。善男子。若有国土众生。应以佛身得度者。观世音菩萨。即现佛身而为说法。应以辟支佛身得度者。即现辟支佛身而为说法。应以声闻身得度者。即现声闻身而为说法。应以梵王身得度者。即现梵王身而为说法。应以帝释身得度者。即现帝释身而为法」(40)。

     

    我々は観音菩萨の化身を化身と见なすことができるし,分身と见なすこともできる。いわゆる化身は変化身のことで,一つの体から他の形に変わる。分身は一つの体から数多くの他の形に分化するということである。我々は子供,少年,青年,老年时代と自分自身の化身として考えられる。もし我々は他人に変化できれば化身になるし,我々の体は新しい个体に分化できれば分身になる。実际に我々は一つの体しかないが,何故仏と菩萨には分身と化身があるだろう?仏経では「无量なる功徳」を成就しなければ达成できないとあり修行の重要性を强调している。

    仏教には非常に重要な「轮廻」の概念がある。この概念が成立していれば,过去,现在及び将来の「我々」は自分の化身になる。密教の行者と本尊三密相应中の本尊は行者を化身と见なす原因もそこにある。分身の理论と仮説について後ほど述べる。理论上我々自分自身の化身の问题が解釈できれば,我々はどこでも,いつでも,どんな时空においても存在しているということは理论的に成立することになる。しかし,実际に“神足通”を成就するために,我々人间の体の细胞に蓄えているすべての潜在的な能力を発挥しなければならない。これなら机上の空论ではない。顕教の修行は“三大无数劫”を経て,絶えることなく続けて突き进まなければ成仏を実现できない。密教の“即身成佛”の思想を确立するには,如法持戒修行のような厳格な三密修行が欠かせない。但し,现代人は西洋の哲学と科学の知识を受け入れたので,既にそれを空中楼阁のように考えられている。修行者で理论を説く者は无数にいるが,実际に仏教に従って修行する人はごくわずかである。経典と仏教の歴史はそれが実现できると证明してくれている。例えば,『神僧传第三卷』“杯渡”ではこのように书いてある。

     

    #65378;杯渡者。不知姓名。常乘木杯渡水。人因目之。初在冀州不修细行。神力卓越世莫测其由少时游止无定。请召或往不往。时南州有陈家。颇有衣食。渡往其家甚见迎奉。闻都下复有一杯渡。陈父子五人咸不信。往都下看之。果如其家杯渡。形相一种。陈设一合蜜姜及刀子薰陆香手巾等。渡即食蜜姜都尽。余物宛在膝前。其父子五人恐是其家杯渡。即留二弟停都守视。余三人还家。家中杯渡如旧膝前亦有香刀子等。但不噉蜜姜为异尔。乃语陈云。刀子钝可为磨之。二弟还都云。彼渡已移灵鹫寺。其家忽求黄纸两幅作书。书不成字。合同其背。陈问上人作何券书。渡不答顷世亦言时有见者。」(41

     

    天眼通:远近を问わず,大小にかかわらず,どんなものでも见ることのできる力。

     

    周知のように,人间の肉眼の视力は限界がある。人间の目は赤外线と紫外线に及ばない。现代の科学机器を使えば,赤外线と紫外线を分别でき,电子天文望远镜の力を借りれば,远い所にある星も観察できる。これらは理论的に天眼通は実现できることの确认であるが,大多数の人は科学机器を使わなければならないと考えている。

     

    仏教の天眼通は実现できるだろうか?この问题は仏菩萨しか答えられないかもしれない。しかし,仏菩萨は结局人间が修行したものである。すなわち理论上人类自身がこの问题を答える“可能性”を持っていることになる。ここでいう天眼通とは実に见える物质的な宇宙だけではなく,“精神宇宙”,つまり十法界のことも含まれている。言い换えれば,天眼通の能力は“精神宇宙”を见えることも含むべきで,天眼通には“思う视力”も揃わなければならない。人类の最大な视力が10キロであれば,20キロ先のものをみるために10キロ地点に移动しなければならない。しかし,実际に10キロ地点に立つなら,天眼通とはいえない。そこは一つのやり方しかない。すなわち我々の思いは我々の目を10キロの所におくことである。思いの力は精神力で,神足通の能力を持っていれば,自然に天眼通の能力も持つこととなる。现実的にはこれらの答えはまだ我々の体,あるいは魂の中に潜んでいる。十法界のホログラフィック意义そのものは我々の中にあり,それゆえ天眼通は一种の精神能力であるといえる。

     

    我々の体には无数の细胞があり,それぞれの细胞は理论上新しい个体をクローンすることができる。そうすると无数の个体がクローンでき,そのクローンされた个体はまた无数の新しい个体をクローンできる。これは天眼通と天耳通の物质的な基础の仮説である。宇宙はホログラムのようなものであると仮设しよう。ホログラフィック原理というのは一つの物からその他のあらゆる物,局部から全体を推知するものである。生物ホログラフィック説は中国山东大学张頴清教授が1973年に発表した理论である(42)。「ホログラフィー」を简単に解釈すると,人体のある机能,独立した构造の部位あるいは组织は,体全体の情报を完全に反映することである。例えば,一枚の木の叶からその树木全体のことを推知でき,一本の指から人间の体の全体を推知でき,一个の细胞から生物体の全体を推知できることである。范囲を広げて言うと,我々は一粒の埃から地球のことを知り,地球から太阳系全体を知り,太阳系から银河系を知り,银河系から宇宙全体を知ることになる。推知と

     

    いうのは思想活动あるいは考える活动である。「宇宙ホログラム」の概念が成立すると仮定すれば,人类の思いは宇宙全体について分かるはずである。言い换えれば,人类の目は宇宙のすべてが见え,耳は宇宙すべての音が闻こえることになる。中国の『易経』はホログラム宇宙を表す哲学着书であり,その思想および道家始祖老子の『道徳経』の哲学思想は、仏教のホログラフィック思想に包括されている。『一切如来全身舍利宝箧印陀罗尼经』には次の如くある。

     

    #65378;佛言谛听汝金刚手。後世若有信男信女及复我等四部弟子。发心书写此一经典。即准书写九十九百千万俱胝如来所说一切经典。即过於彼九十九百千万俱胝如来之前久植善根。即亦彼诸一切如来。加持护念犹如爱眼。亦如慈母爱护幼子。若人读诵此一卷经。即为读诵过去现在未来诸佛所说经典。」「复次佛告金刚手言。若有众生书写此经置塔中者。是塔即为一切如来金刚藏窣都婆。亦为一切如来陀罗尼心秘密加持窣都婆。即为九十九百千万俱胝如来窣都婆。亦为一切如来佛顶佛眼窣都婆。即为一切如来神力所护。」(43

     

    上记の経文は仏教真理のホログラフィック性を反映している。三蔵を暗记できても仏教の真理を悟るとは限らず,纸上で文章に没头するだけでは、仏教の悟りには程远い。弘法大师に“佛法非遥心中即近,真如非外弃身何求”(44)という名句がある。仏経をいくつか読み,仏教の歴史をすこしかじるぐらいで自分が仏教に精通していると勘违いする人は夜郎自大にほかにない。

     

    物理学において,“质量保存の法则”と“エネルギー保存の法则”は最も基本的な法则の二つである。もし物质的なエネルギーが精神的なエネルギーに変わる场合,エネルギーはどのように保存するだろう?基本的な哲学的な観点からみれば,物质と精神的な哲学は相互依存し,互いに転化できる。仏経の研究は歴史研究ではなく,「心」の活动も研究しなければならない。仏は人间が修业することであり,仏経に関する研究も人の研究から离れることができない。人体における生物学的な研究だけではなく,人间の精神活动についても研究する必要がある。言い换えれば,人间の魂の実质を究明しなければならない。“质量保存の法则”によると,我々はホログラフィック的に理解すれば,宇宙の中の物质と精神がすべて保存できることになる。「六道」に流れているすべての魂もこの法则に准ずることになる。物质的な宇宙はホログラフィック世界であれば,それに対応している精神的な宇宙はホログラムである。すなわち,一つの魂から宇宙のあらゆる精神を推知できることになる。魂は物质的な精神の「体」に対応している。

     

    天耳通:世の中すべての音・声を闻き分ける力。

     

    天眼通の理论仮説とほぼ同じである。

     

    他心通:他人が心に思うことをすべて知ることができる力。

     

    我々はホログラフィック原理を借りて仮説を立てると同时に,「宇宙大爆発」理论を借用して,宇宙の万物はすべて再爆発により始まると仮设する。さらに,大爆発が起きた当初生じたあらゆる物质の成分に対して追迹観察を行うと仮设して,长い歳月の中で宇宙のすべての物质の运行の轨迹およびそれが生じた変化は追迹観察の资料からホログラフィック的に把握できることになる。宇宙の中で既に発见された物质の种类は103种类あって,疑うことなく科学技术の発展につれて,さらに新しい元素を発见することは可能である。生命体を构成する元素の中で最も多いのは炭素C,水素H,酸素Oと窒素N4种类である。人类において构成元素は基本的に同じである。これらの元素は宇宙大爆発と同时に産出された场合,人间の体の中の炭素C,水素H,酸素Oと窒素Nは长い歴史の中での変化する情报を见つけることは,人类の机体の中にある炭素C,水素H,酸素Oと窒素Nの歴史を知ることになる。これは他心通理论の物理学の基础である。しかし,人间は魂を持っている。ある魂のすべての情报により他の魂のことを推知できれば,他の人の精神活动を知ることになる。

     

    宿命通:自分と他人の过去世の状态を知ることができる力。

     

    宿命通というのは魂が运行する轨迹において,すべての情报とそれと関连する物质活动の歴史の过去の再现,现在の様子と将来の推测である。その実质は精神情报のホログラフィック性である。

     

    漏尽通:烦悩のけがれのなくなったことを确认する力。

     

    ここで新しい概念である「摂食」を导入しよう。文字とおり「摂食」は物を体の中に入れて,消化吸収するという意味である。しかし,ここの「摂食」は物质を摂取するだけではなく,精神情报エネルギーを摂取することも含まれている。『金刚界五悔』と『胎藏界九方便』は実は精神的エネルギーの交流で,修业者の精神的エネルギーと仏菩萨の精神エネルギーの相互作用の结果である。人の褒め言叶で嬉しくなるとすれば,それは賛美の言叶に褒められたものにとって积极的で,愉快になる「精神情报エネルギー」が含まれているからである。同様に皈依,忏悔,劝请,随喜,回向等も精神的情报エネルギーの交流として考えられる。仏は宇宙ホログラムと合体した精神体である。修业者の仏に対する供养は、精神エネルギーの供养で,仏からの供养を受けることは「摂食」といえる。前に物质と精神は互いに転换できると述べた。もし我々は精神的なエネルギーを摂取することができれば,その精神エネルギーは物质エネルギーに転化することもできる。道家の修业において重要な“辟谷”という概念は,数日间食べず饮まずに生命活动を正常に维持することである。仏坛に花や线香を供养することは,人间の虔诚を现すだけではなく,仏の精神体との情报エネルギーの交流である。

     

    漏尽通は名のとおり,漏れることはすべて絶えるという意味である。简単にいえば新陈代谢の停止になる。我々は「摂食」することができれば,代谢机能は休むことができるようになる。

     

    5、神通力の例

     

    1)鸠摩罗什,歴史上有名な仏教の翻訳者である。『大正蔵』『神僧传卷第二』には彼の神通力は次の如く述べられている。

     

    「什未终少日。觉四大不宁。乃口出三番神咒。令外国弟子诵之以自救。未及致力转觉危殆。於是力疾与众僧告别曰。因法相遇殊未尽心。方复後世恻怆何言。自以闇昧谬充传译。凡所出经。论三百余卷。唯十诵一部未及删繁。存其本旨必无差失。愿凡所宣译传流後世咸共弘通。今於众前发诚实誓。若所传无谬者。当使焚身之後舌不焦烂。以弘始十一年八月二十日卒于长安。是岁晋义熙五年也。即於逍遥园依外国法以火焚屍。薪灭形碎惟舌不灰尔。」(45

     

    鸠摩罗什の死に际しての遗言である。もし私が翻訳した経典に误りなければ,私は火葬以後の舌は腐らないと愿おう。鸠摩罗什の舌は腐らなかった。

     

    2)金刚智『大正藏——神僧卷第七』

     

    「至开元中达于广府。後随驾洛阳。其年自正月不雨迨于五月。岳渎灵祠祷之无应。乃诏智结坛祈请。於是用不空钩依菩萨法。在所住处起坛。深四肘。躬绘七俱胝菩萨像。立期以开光明日定随雨焉帝使一行禅师谨密候之。至第七日炎气爞爞天无浮翳。午後方开眉眼即时西北风生。飞瓦拔树崩云泄雨。远近惊骇。而结坛之地。穿穴其屋洪注道场。质明京师一庶皆云。智获一龙穿屋飞去。求观其处日千万人。」

     

    「初帝之第二十五公主甚锺其爱。久疾不救移卧於咸宜外馆。闭目不语已经旬朔。有敕令智授之戒法。此乃料其必终故有是命。智诣彼择取宫中七岁二女子。以绯缯缠其面目卧於地。使牛仙童写敕一纸焚於他所。智以密语咒之。二女冥然诵得不遗一字。智入三摩地。以不思议力令二女持敕诣琰摩王。食顷间王令公主亡保母刘氏护送公主魂。随二女至。於是公主起坐开目言语如常。帝闻之不俟仗卫驰骑往于外馆。公主奏曰。冥数难移。今王遣回略觐圣颜而已。可半日间然後长逝。自尔帝方加归仰焉。」

     

    「至二十年壬申八月既望。於洛阳广福寺命门人曰。白月圆时吾当去矣。遂礼毘卢遮那佛旋绕七匝。退归本院焚香发愿。顶戴梵夹并新译教法。付嘱讫寂然而化。」(46

     

    3)无畏三藏『大正藏神僧传卷第七』

     

    「三藏饮酒食肉言行麤易。往往乘醉喧竞秽污茵席。宣律颇不能甘之。忽中夜宣律扪虱将投于地。三藏半醉连声呼曰。律师律师扑死佛子耶。宣律方知其为异人也。整衣作礼而师事焉。」

     

    「在洛时有巨蛇高丈余长且百尺。其状甚异。蟠绕出於山下。洛民咸见之。畏语曰。此蛇欲决水瀦洛城。即说佛书义。其蛇至夕则驾风露来。若倾听状。畏责之曰。尔蛇也。当居深山中用安其所。何为将欲肆毒於世耶。速去无患生人。其蛇闻之若有惭色。遂俯于地顷而死焉。」

     

    「开元十年七月旱。帝遣使诏无畏请雨。畏持满钵水以小刀搅之。诵咒数番。即有物如蚪龙从钵中矫首水面。畏咒遣之。白气自钵腾涌。语诏使曰。速归雨即至矣。诏使驰出。顷刻风雷震电。诏使趋入奏。御衣巾已透湿。霖雨弥日而息。又尝淫雨逾时。诏畏止之。畏掜泥媪五躯向之作梵语叱骂者。即刻而霁。」(47

     

    4)一行

     

    『大正藏神僧传卷第七』

     

    「一行因穷大衍。自此求访师资不远数千里。尝至天台国清寺见一院。古松数十株门前有流水。一行立於门屏间闻院中僧於庭布算。其声蓛蓛。既而谓其徒曰。今日当有弟子求吾算法。已合到门。岂无人导达耶。即除一算。又谓曰。门前水合却西流弟子当至。一行承言而入。稽首请法尽授其术。而门水复东流矣。自此声振遐迩。」

     

    「初一行幼时家贫邻有王姥。前後济之约数十万。一行尝思报之。至开元中一行承玄宗敬遇言无不可。未几会王姥儿犯杀人。狱未具。姥诣一行求救。一行曰。姥要金帛。当十倍畴也。君上执法难以请求如何。王姥戟手大骂曰。何用识此僧。一行从而谢之。终不顾。一行心计浑天寺中工役数百。乃命空其室内。徙一大瓮。於中。密选常住奴二人。授以布囊。谓曰。某方某角有废园。汝中潜伺从午至昏。当有物入来。其数七者可尽掩之。失一则杖汝。如言而往。至酉後果有群豕至。悉获而归。一行大喜。令寘瓮中覆以木盖。封以六一泥。朱题梵字数十。其徒莫测。诘朝中使叩门急召至便殿。玄宗迎问曰。太史奏。昨夜北斗不见。是何祥也。师有以禳之乎。一行曰。後魏时失荧惑至今帝车不见。古所无者天将大警於陛下也。夫匹夫匹妇不得其所。则陨霜赤旱。盛德所感乃能退舍。感之切者其在葬枯出击乎。释门以瞋心坏一切善。慈心降一切魔。如臣曲见莫若大赦天下。玄宗从之。又其夕太史奏。北斗一星见。凡七日而复。」(48

     

    5)不空『大正藏神僧传卷第八』

     

    「既达师子国。王遣使迎之。极备供养。一日王作调象戏。人皆登高望之无敢近者。空口诵手印住於慈定。当衢而立。狂象数头顿皆踢趺。举国奇之。」

     

    「至天宝五载还京。是岁终夏愆阳。诏令祈雨。制曰。时不得赊雨不得暴。空奏立孔雀王坛。未尽三日雨已浃洽。帝大悦。」

     

    「又以京师春夏不雨。诏空祈请。如三日内雨是和尚法力。三日已往而霈然者非法力也。空受敕立坛。至第二日大雨云足。一岁复大旱。京兆尹萧昕诣寺谓为结坛致雨。不空命其徒取桦皮仅尺余。缋小龙於其上。而以炉香瓯水置于前。转吹震舌呼使咒之。食顷即以缋龙授昕曰。可投此于曲江中。投讫亟还。无冒风雨。昕如言投之。旋有白龙才尺余。摇鬣振鳞自水出。俄而龙长数丈。状如曳素。倏忽亘天。昕鞭马疾驱未及数十步。云物凝晦暴雨骤降。比至永崇里第衢中之水已决渠矣。」

     

    「至永泰中香水沐浴东首以卧。比面瞻礼阙庭。以大印身定中而寂。茶毘火灭。收舍利数百粒。其顶骨不燃。中有舍利一颗。半隐半现。敕於本院别起塔焉。」(49

     

    以上、密教僧の神通力について现れているところを指摘した。

     

    神通の例は仏典や仏教记録の中で数え切れないほどたくさんある。上に述べた例からも仏法の修业により神通を现わすことが确かに出来ることが分かる。

    仏法において,顕教でも密教でもその求めるところは真理である。现代科学の中の多くの観点も真理の追求である。真理は真理によって解釈出来るべきである。言い换えれば,仏法は现代科学哲学の理论で解釈されることができるはずである。仏経の解釈に関して,伝统的なのは「経によって経を解釈する」ということであるが,そのやり方は正しい。より多くの人に仏法のホログラフィック哲学科学性を知ってもらうためには,伝统的な研究方法は説得力に欠けている。仏教は実践的な哲学科学システムは必要であるが、その実践なしでは机上の空论になるだけである。现代の数多くの仏教研究は既に机上の空论となっていて,一部の仏教研究家は四六时中派手な空论を并べ立てるだけである。実际の修业に少しも役に立たない。

     

    神通力は、経典の中でどのように解釈されているのだろう?

     

    『大正藏——大般若波罗蜜多经卷第三初分学观品第二之一』には、次の如くある。

     

    #65378;若菩萨摩诃萨。欲一念顷安立十方殑伽沙等诸佛世界一切有情。皆令习学四静虑四无量四无色定获五神通。应学般若波罗蜜多。」

     

    #65378;复次舍利子。若菩萨摩诃萨。修行般若波罗蜜多能如实知。如是布施得大果报。谓如实知。如是布施得生刹帝利大族。如是布施得生婆罗门大族。如是布施得生长者大族。如是布施得生居士大族。如是布施得生四大王众天。或生三十三天。或生夜摩天。或生覩史多天。或生乐变化天。或生他化自在天。因是布施得初静虑。或第二静虑。或第三静虑。或第四静虑。因是布施得空无边处定。或识无边处定。或无所有处定。或非想非非想处定。因是布施得三十七菩提分法。因是布施得三解脱门。因是布施得八解脱。或八胜处。或九次第定。或十遍处。因是布施得陀罗尼门。或三摩地门。因是布施得入菩萨正性离生。因是布施得极喜地。或离垢地。或发光地。或焰慧地。或极难胜地。或现前地。或远行地。或不动地。或善慧地。或法云地。因是布施得佛五眼。或六神通。因是布施得佛十力。或四无所畏。或四无碍解。或十八佛不共法。或大慈大悲大喜大舍。因是布施得三十二大丈夫相。或八十随好。因是布施得无忘失法。或恒住舍性。因是布施得一切智。或道相智。或一切相智。因是布施得预流果。或一来果。或不还果。或阿罗汉果。或独觉菩提。或得无上正等菩提。能如实知。如是净戒安忍精进静虑般若。得大果报亦复如是。」「若菩萨摩诃萨。欲得五眼。所谓肉眼天眼慧眼法眼佛眼。应学般若波罗蜜多。复次舍利子。若菩萨摩诃萨。欲以天眼普见十方殑伽沙等诸佛世界一切如来应正等觉。应学般若波罗蜜多。若菩萨摩诃萨。欲以天耳普闻十方殑伽沙等诸佛世界一切如来应正等觉所说正法。应学般若波罗蜜多。」(50

     

    『大正藏——大般若波罗蜜多经卷第三百四十六』には、次のごとくある。

     

    #65378;善现。是菩萨摩诃萨能如是行甚深般若波罗蜜多。则令苦圣谛速得圆满。亦令集灭道圣谛速得圆满。善现。是菩萨摩诃萨能如是行甚深般若波罗蜜多。则令四静虑速得圆满。亦令四无量四无色定速得圆满。善现。是菩萨摩诃萨能如是行甚深般若波罗蜜多。则令八解脱速得圆满。亦令八胜处九次第定十遍处速得圆满。善现。是菩萨摩诃萨能如是行甚深般若波罗蜜多。则令四念住速得圆满。亦令四正断四神足五根五力七等觉支八圣道支速得圆满。」(51

     

    以上の経文の意味は、六波罗蜜を実行することにより,神通を获得することが出来る。あるいは潜在能力を开発することが出来るようになる。六度万行はなぜあらゆる仏典の中で缲り返して强调されるのだろう。その原因は、すでに充分解釈したように,笔者は六度万行が我々の精神体と外部の环境の中のすべての精神体とを絶えず情报交换していることであると考えている。我々の体は一个の受精した卵子から、一人の成熟した生命に生育発达してきた。同じように我々の精神体も成长し続けることによって完成されていくものである。成育していく段阶の过程では、精神体が完璧に発达できたというわけではなく,むしろ仏菩萨のようなより大きな精神体へ近づく道の始まりにすぎない。

     

    6、神通力の现代哲学観仮説

     

    自然科学から生命现象に対する解釈の记述をみると,生命は単细胞から変化してきたという论点を受け入れることができる。単细胞生命の段阶において,一个の细胞は独立して色,音,香り,味,触,动くなどすべての生命活动の机能を担わなければならない。细胞は単细胞から多细胞へ変化し,组织器官の分化统合により,生命活动の机能も细胞间における役割分担が起こる。一部の细胞は色の识别(视覚)を担当し,同様に一部の细胞は臭い(臭覚),一部の细胞は触(感覚),また一部は运动を担当する。当然この过程は长い歳月をかけてようやく完成できることである。多细胞段阶になると,细胞の机能の分化により,色を担当した细胞は音,香り,味,触、动くといった机能を「忘れ」,音を担当した细胞は香り,味,触、动くという机能を「忘れ」,味を担当した细胞は音,香り,动く机能を「忘れ」,触を担当した细胞は音,香り,味,动くという机能を「忘れ」,さらに,动くことを担当した细胞は音,香り,味,触という机能を「忘れて」しまう。

     

    我々の体は一个の独立した受精卵から発展してきたと同じように,细胞はみな同一の细胞から分化し,発达しては全く同じである。そのため,我々は细胞のすべての活动机能は一个一个の细胞のDNAの中にも存在していると仮设できる。しかし生命活动が高级段阶に入った今日,色覚细胞は単なる色覚(特に光に対して),聴覚细胞は音だけ,嗅覚细胞は嗅覚だけ,味覚细胞は味覚だけ,触覚细胞は触覚だけ,运动细胞は运动のみに携わっていることになっている。色覚细胞は聴覚,嗅覚,味覚,触覚および运动といった机能を「忘れ」,聴覚细胞は色覚,味覚,触覚,运动の机能を「忘れて」,味覚は色覚,聴覚,触覚を「忘れて」,触覚は色覚,聴覚,味覚,运动といった机能を「忘れている」。

     

    细胞の机能は単一化されているが,それぞれの细胞の遗伝子はその中に他の细胞の机能の暗号,つまり「记忆」をもっていると考えられる。例えば色覚细胞は色を区别することができるが,他の「忘れていた」机能ももっている。もし色覚细胞のそういった机能の「记忆」を取り戻すことができれば,色覚细胞は同じように聴覚,嗅覚,味覚,触覚および运动などの机能を果たすことできるようになる。骨细胞は当然骨细胞を支配する机能をもっているが、记忆が回复すれば运动など「忘れられた」他の细胞の机能を果たすことができる。従って,运动细胞にも影响をもたらすことができるし,感じ取ることもできる。さらにニューロン信号の伝达もできる。同じように,他の细胞は理论上みな分化によって失われた机能を取り戻すことができる。

     

    いずれにせよ,この仮説は理论上成立可能であると考えられる。この仮説は成立していれば,神通は生まれつきの能力であるが、普段人々は神通という能力を示していないため,人体の细胞がもっているすべての能力が発挥していないと考えられる。我々は日常生活の中でのあらゆる活动は人体能力のごく一部しか使っていなくて,いわゆるまだ现れていない本能は「潜在能力」と呼ばれている。神通は人类,およびすべての生命体の「潜在能力」であり,言い换えれば未知なる「潜在能力」である。

     

    神通は潜在能力であると认识すると,さまざまな细胞の中における遗伝子DNAの情报ホログラムが同等であるため,神通のホログラフィック性が见えてくる。そうすれば,神通は「超自然」能力ではなく,仏教経典に记载されている「神通」も空中の楼阁ではなくなる。その结果,神通は神秘的なものや超自然能力ではなく,実际に本能として存在していることが确かめられる。

     

    しかし,我々は何故「神通」をもたず,我々には「潜在能力」が现れないのだろう。

     

    その理由は我々は轮廻の中で贪欲,怒り、无知ということに毒され,そのせいでもともともっている本性を遮っている。动物はなぜ地震の前に地震を感知できるのだろう?远い昔の先祖たちは灾难が来る前に灾难を予知できたのだろう?その原理が同様である。つまり神通は超自然能力ではなく,もともと先天的に持っている能力である。神通を开発するために,仏経では持戒精进六度万行慈悲喜舍四无量行といった修业を缲り返して强调している。つまり,「潜在能力」の开発には我々の身体が絶えず外部の环境と积极的に情报またはエネルギーの交流をすることが必要である。一个の原子に例えれば,原子核のまわりに回っている电子は、高いエネルギーを持つ段阶に跳跃するために,外部からのエネルギーを获得しなければならない。地下に眠っている宝は発掘によって现れるが,さらに精选する过程を通して宝のすべての特质が见えるようになる。人体の「潜在能力」の开発も同じである。

     

    现代の生物遗伝技术は、単一细胞から新しい个体を作ることができるようになった。伦理学の问题を别にして,人体细胞から“新しい人”をクローンすることが理论上完全に成立する。人体の细胞の数は天文学的な数である。例えば,人体には1020乗の细胞がある场合,理论上1020乗の新しい个体がクローンできることになる。さらにこれらの新しい个体はまた同じように新しい个体をクローンすることができ,このように限りなく繁殖ことが出来る。仏陀,菩萨の化身は三千大千世界を作るという推论も现代の科学理论において成立している。これは人体情报のホログラグフィック性である。これもまた「一微尘涵三千大千世界,三千大千世界复入一微尘」という言い方のホログラフィック意义である。

     

    しかし,「理论即実践」というわけにはいかない。仏陀の教法は実践真理の指导であり,潜在力を开発する指导でもある。仏経の経典である経,律,论(三蔵)は,闻,思,修を通して戒,定,慧を达成し,さらに戒,定,慧は神通に到达できれば成就することになる。

     

    仏法は広くて奥深いホログラフィック科学システムである。釈迦牟尼の成仏は宇宙真理に対する彻底的な认识と确认に基づいている。

     

    细胞に「忘れた」记忆を思い出させるためにどうすればいいだろう。细胞に「忘れた」机能を取り戻すことはできるだろう。その答えは「はい,できる」ということである。釈迦牟尼の実践によってこの二つの问题が回答された。

     

    全力を尽くした修业を通して,釈迦の体はすべての细胞を100%発挥することができ,各种の神通をもつようになった。経を唱えたり,座禅をしたりするような修业は外から见ればそれほどきつい活动ではないかもしれないが,実际にそうではない。更に一歩深めて修业の精神的意味をみると,修业は积极的に健康な精神エネルギーの积み重ねであることがわかる。その积み重ねが一定の程度に达したら,我々が生まれながらもっている「潜在能力」を开発することができるようになる。仏教の修业は特に戒めを重视する。もし戒律がなくなったら,仏法も消灭してしまう。

     

    仏教の记述は、愚かに编纂された歴史物语と误解してはいけない。人体は何故「超能力」を持つことができるのかではなく、「超能力」は、人体がもっている本能なのである。

     

    ここから推论できるように,すべては変えることができる。すべての生き物が成仏を目指す时、通过する道は修业である。仏教の法典をたくさん読み,教法に従って修业すれば益するところは大である。

     

    四、戒めのホロフラフィックの意义:

     

    仏教の戒律には不杀生がある。仏典では不杀生について详细な解釈があるが、その大意は慈悲心のゆえにできる戒である。情をもっているものはすべて成仏できるといわれ,生きるものを杀して食べることは,仏を杀し,血を流させることと同じになる。不杀生という教法は我々の慈爱する心を育てるものである。

     

    理论上次のように解釈することもできる。つまりすべての生き物が感情をもっている。これは现代生物学の数多くの実験によってすでに基本的に证明されている。命の意味は二つの部分が含まれていると考えられる。一つ目は肉体で,二つ目は魂である。魂は言い换えれば我々の精神の表れでもある。どんな命を杀す场合でも,杀されるほうは自分の命を夺うものに対して感谢,または嬉しい感情をもっているだろうか。答えはおそらく否定である。理论上,いずれかの命を杀す场合,杀されるほうは必然的に恐怖,怒り,恨みなどの感情はもっていると考えられる。物质は精神と一体であり,恐怖,怒り,恨みなどの精神的情报のエネルギーも必ず肉体と一体化する。杀してその肉を食べるのは、体は物质的な体の需要を补うため,脂肪や蛋白质を吸収するのである。精神も必ずその肉体に含まれている「恐怖,怒り,恨み」などを吸収することになる。そうすれば,それら消极的な精神情报エネルギーは物质的な身の中で积み重ねて増えていくことになる。

     

    哲学の基本的な课题は既に物质と精神との间の相互作用を认めている。精神の身に蓄积されたネガティブな精神情报エネルギーは、ある一定の程度に达すと,必然的に物质の身に対して反作用に働く。结果として,食べた方の物质の身は摂取したネガティブな情报エネルギーにより弱められる。その弱められた物质の身は病気にかかりやすくなる。物质の身のダメージにより行动上不注意があると、灾いを引き起こしやすくなる。

     

    広く言えば,このようなことは普段の生活の至るところに存在している。我々の思いの中に善良な部分が多ければ多いほど,善良な精神情报エネルギーを受け取るチャンスが多くなる。逆の场合も推测できる。そのため,すべての情のあるものに対して善良な心で対応することは,我々自分自身,または我々の慧命を守る最もよい方法である。

     

    古人は「诚爲至善一生用之不尽,心作善田百世耕作有余」という伪りのない対联を残している。

     

    生活の中で人々はよく「酒肉穿肠过,佛祖心中留」という。しかし実际に酒肉はただ肠を通り抜けるというのがもっと难しく,最後に「断肠の思い(悲しみ苦しみの极致)」をすることが多い。

     

    密厳院が配布した忏悔文には,「我等忏悔无始来,妄想所缠造衆罪,身口意业常颠倒,误犯无量不善业」と书いてある。この文の意味は文字とおりで分かりやすい。「我」というのは人间の一生,すなわち生れ,老い,病,死のことを指していて,「无始来」はどういう意味だろう。ここの「无始」は无始劫であり,过去の无量な歳月のことを指している。“我”は我々の物质的な体のことだけではなく,我々の精神体,魂のことをも多く意味している。我々の魂は过去のすべての「罪」を背负っていて,言い换えれば,我々の精神体は魂が六道轮廻の中で积み重ねてきたすべての精神情报エネルギーをもっている。これらの精神情报エネルギーの中のネガティブなエネルギーは「无明」である。ネガティブなエネルギーをポジティブなエネルギーに転化しなければ,「断无明」になれない。生きている我々はネガティブな情报エネルギーを持っていることは,それらを転化しなければならないという课题は至难である。我々自身の「潜在能力」を开発するために,ネガティブな情报エネルギーを転化あるいは相杀させ,ポジティブなエネルギーを増やさなければならない。これは戒律と六度万行のホログラフィック意义である。

     

    戒律のホログラフィック意味は不杀生の道理と同じように,戒めを守ることは修行者にとってきわめて重要である。戒律を軽视し,あるいは戒律を违反する人は,成就できるものはほとんどいないといえよう。六度万行をやり続けることで本当の心の「清浄」となる。心が完全に清浄であれば,すべてが方便法门になる。心が清らかでなければ,方便法门は白昼梦であるといえよう。

     

    五、三密加持の仮説

     

    密教を修行すると我々が身につけている能力をだんだんと発掘することが出来る。三密の行は我々の神通力を开発する道であろうか。密教の训练は理屈だけでは理解出来ない。実践面の行はからなず大事にしなければならない。実践面の行は作法だけでなく生活の総てを含めて仏の知恵生活の中で実践し,成仏への道を歩まねばならない。其の训练は、実に我々の身体の経络の训练である。

     

    身体の経络のホログラフィーの意义とは何であるか。我々は人间の身体が二部分から构成することを理解するならば,人间の身体は、物质と精神,换言すれば,肉体と魂であると仮定することが出来る。身体の経络とは、我々の身体つまり物质と精神を结ぶ临界状态のことである。このように理解すると,手印のホログラフィーの意义は比较的理解しやすい。観想とは、物质と精神が互いの転化しているアプローチの状态である。このように理解すれば、密教の修行をするということが、即时に成仏することを意味していると理解できる。

    梵字は仏の言叶と言われている。其れを诵ずれば我々の体にどんな効き目が与えられるのか?仏陀の言语は慈悲と仁爱を満たしている。だから我々は口に唱えると必然的に体の内部の分子构造の変化を引き起こす。同様な道理で,体のすべての细胞の构造はいずれも积极的に変化するという性质をもっている。

     

    三密加持を扱うことにおいて、次の二つの问题を提示しておく。

     

    三密の修行は、我々の身体にどんな役割を持ち来たらすのか。细胞とか神経とか経络にどんな结果をもたらすのか。三密を修行することにおいて、その修行が纳得行かなければ、修行の説明はただ説教するだけにとどまるだろう。

     

    密教の研究は一体どのように行うべきか?もし単纯に文献学、考古学的な研究にとどまれば、知识としての研究に过ぎない。研究することにおいて智慧の部分が全く出てこない。そのような密教研究は役立たない。密教は実践の仏法で、卓上の空论の研究ではない。

     

    三密加持というのは二つの意味を持っている。まずは“三密相应”で,その次は“三力加持”である。三密相応とは、如来侧からの身口意と衆生侧からの身口意が互いに相応していることである。三力は法界力,如来力と修行者の功徳力である。

     

    修行にかかわる内容として、水の结晶の研究についての発想を绍介しておきたい。日本の江本胜⑲博士は水分子の结晶の研究に関して意义深い研究を発表した。水は各种の方式の刺激を受けて,その结晶が面白くて変わっていく。その研究はまさに神通力と肉身不壊の良い説明となろう。

     

    江本胜氏の水の结晶に対するシリーズ研究は、仏教密教の修行にも大きな意味がある。彼の研究はおおざっぱにいうと,水にさまざまな情报刺激を与え,その结晶を観察することである。それらの刺激はポジティブとネガティブの二种类に分类される。ポジティブな刺激としては,例えば爱,世话,幸せ,感谢,賛美などであり,ネガティブな刺激は、恨み,冷淡,悲しみ,里切り,ののしるなどがあげられている。ポジティブな刺激を与えた水の结晶の形は、非常に均整がとれて,美しい。逆に,ネガティブな刺激を与えられた水の结晶は构造的に不规则で,乱れているようにみえる(51)。

     

    1987年にフランスの科学者であるジャック・はある実験を通して,水には「记忆」の机能があることを证明したが,业界ではなかなか认められなかった。日本の江本胜は雪の结晶は唯一であることから(歴史上世界各地で降った亿兆の雪の中で,まったく同じ形をしている结晶はなかった),异なる场所の水からできた结晶は,その形と様子は违うことを思いついた。

     

    江本氏は水を冷冻室に入れ冻结させ,それから特殊な顕微镜でその结晶の様子の写真を撮った(江本胜着「水は语る-魂を映りだす结晶の真実」を参照)。その结果,出来上がった写真は天然水からの结晶はとても美しいが,水道水あるいは工业汚染された水の结晶は均整がとれてなく,あるいは结晶しないことを発见した。パリ,ロンドン,东京,ローマ,ベネチア,バンコク,マカオから取ってきた水道水の结晶の写真は,いずれももやもやしていて,色が暗く,均整が取れていない形で,见る人に不愉快な思いをさせる。香港の水道水の结晶も同じである。しかし,ワシントン,バンクーバー,ベルリンなどの都市の水の结晶は均整が取れていて,明るくて美しい。南极や各大陆の泉や郊外の地下水の结晶は,魅せられる宝石のような形になっている。

     

    水に优雅な音楽を闻かせると结晶がきれいになる。また騒がしい音楽を闻かせると结晶の形も丑くくなる。牧师の祝福を受けた水,あるいは美しい风景や祝いの言叶を水の前においていくと,その结晶はきれいであるなど,更なる研究から明らかとなった。ベートーベンの交响曲「田园」を闻かせた水の结晶は爽やかな曲のように均整が取れていて美しい。韩国の民謡「アリラン」(恋人と分かれる时の悲しい気持ちを描写する曲)を闻いた水の结晶は,悲しそうな様子をしている。エルヴィス・プレスリーの歌「HeartbreakHotel」を闻いた水の结晶は割れた心の形になっている。リズム感が强いブラジル音楽を聴いた水は,その结晶が复雑で细かい星のような形になっている。オーストリアの民謡「ツィラタールは我が喜び」を闻いた水は,その结晶の中に赤ちゃんの形ができている。チベット教の経の唱えを闻いた水は,その结晶が复雑に络み合って,力强い形となっている。最も不思议なのはアルゼンチンのタンゴ音楽を聴いた水は,その结晶はみなペアで踊っているように见える(ほかにはそのような结晶はなかった)。逆に,ロックンロールのような音楽を闻いた水は,その结晶が混雑していて,その曲が反映している怒りや低俗な歌词と同じように见る人をいらいらさせる。

     

    水に文字を読ませるとどうなるだろう。彼らは同じように水をいくつかの瓶にいれた後,纸に言叶を书いて,文字のある一面を瓶に贴り,水に読ませた。その结果:「ありがとう」を読んだ水の结晶はきれいな六角形になっていて,逆に「ばかやろう」と书いた纸を読んだ水の结晶はロックンロールを聴いたのと同じように混雑している。「いっしょにやりましょう」のような要请の文を読んだ水の结晶は均整がとれていて,「やりなさい」のようなきつい命令形の文を読んだ水はばらばらで,结晶ができなかった。多数の国の言叶で书いた「ありがとう」を読んだ水の结晶はみな均整がとれてとてもきれい。逆に,异なる文字で「ばか」「ちくしょう」のようなことを书いた纸を読んだ水は结晶することはできなかった。その中に,「头にきた,杀すぞ」という文字を読んだ水の结晶は子どもがいじめられる様子が现れた。日本语,英语,ドイツ语で书いた「知恵」という文字を読んだ水の结晶は均整した形をしていて,真ん中が开いている六角形となっている。「天使」という言叶を読んだ水の结晶は美しく光る轮が见える。また「悪魔」を読んだ水の结晶の中心部は黒い突起がでていて,攻撃的にみえた。

     

    水は賛美され,または呪われる场合はどうなるだろう。研究チームは小学生たちに瓶に入れた水に话しかける実験をした。「可爱い」といわれた水の结晶がみな可爱らしい形になっていて,「ばかやろう」と闻かされた水は色が暗く,结晶することができなかった。一回だけ「きれいだな」と闻いた水の结晶は美しく结晶している。何回も「きれいだな」と闻いた水の结晶はさらに均整がとれている形になっている。しかし,皆に无视された水の结晶は形がばらばらで,可哀想にみえた。

     

    江本胜博士はこのように解釈している。一般的に人々は水を「死んでいるもの」(とみている。しかし,命のないものは「死んでいる」わけではない。彼らは「感受性」(见たり,闻いたり,読んだりすることができる)があり,「考える」ことができ,「记忆」ももっている。このように,万物はいつもエネルギーの交流をしていることが分かる。作曲家や演奏者は「気」を音楽の中に入れ,音楽を媒介として「気」を水に伝达し,水はそれを感じ取り,その中の情报を保存することができる。

     

    「意念」自身はエネルギーであり,伝送することができるし,受信されることもできる。また必然的に受信したすべてのものに影响を与えるだろう。以前,このような衒学(形而上学)的理论は宗教的あるいは抽象的な概念とみなされていたが,今になって客観的で,具体的な方法により证明された。

     

    积极的な「意念」は真,善,美の情报を発信し,物事をよりよくさせる。これらの実験から分かるように,「爱している」,「感谢している」(爱と感激)は世の中でもっとも强力で,ポジティブな力である(正のエネルギー)。

     

    水でさえもこのような性质を示している。我々のホログラフィー概念によると,この性质を备えているものは、宇宙の万物,生命に限らない。我々人类の身体をみると,物质的な构造を除いて,魂も一部分となる。物质エネルギーの変化だけで江本胜博士の研究を説明することは难しいが,それを全面的に解釈する场合,“精神情报エネルギー”という概念を导入する必要がある。

     

    三密修行において,真言は仏菩萨の言语で,慈悲喜舍六波罗密の精神情报エネルギーを代表している。手印は仏菩萨の动作で,如来事业を代表し,观想本尊は意念を通して我々を仏菩萨へと导く。このように精进し続ければ,我々の体の物质构造には必ずポジティブな変化が起こる。炭素原子で例えれば,配列が雑であるのは炭素で,均整が取れている配列は石墨になり,最も完璧な结晶构造となっているのはダイヤモンドである。我々の体は修行する前はただの衆生の一人で,成就すれば仏陀になる。密教の修行のみならず,显教の修行も同じである。密教は顕教よりも优れていることが以上の研究からも证明されている。しかし,この二者の优劣を知るだけで,戒めをせず,六度万行も修行せず,慈悲喜舍もしなければ,心が清浄になることはできない。方便法门も见つからず,日々密法を修行しても成就できるわけにはいかない。心が清らかであれば,すべての法门は方便法门になる。心が清らかで,密法を修行すれば成就しやすくなる。口先で仏法をしゃべるだけで,戒めも修行もしないものは,成就することは不可能である。

     

    六、摩诃不思议な现象の现代哲学の仮説

     

    仏教の修行中には、色々な摩诃不思议な现象が表われる。例えば金刚不壊,虹身,舎利とかの现象である。このような现象は不思议かどうか?

     

    金刚不壊とは、即ち肉身不壊である。虹身とは、人间の身体は挥発して光明と薫りと放つことが可能なことである。これも不可思议なことである。舎利とは、人间の身の物质と精神临界の状态の可能な表现を理解すると,问题は単纯化したことになる。

     

    笔者は长年このような问题を真剣に考えてきた。修士论文は笔者のこのような疑问を研究し、その回答を発表した。

     

    摩诃不思议现象とはなにか。

     

    摩诃不思议现象は,种々な哲学観によって理解が可能である。摩诃不思议现象を现代科学の理论から见れば、不思议かどうか?もし现代科学から解釈できないなら、现代科学のほうに问题があるのではなかろうか、とも考えてきた。确かに多くの场合は、现代の科学で解决するが、现代科学のみでは解决できないことが多くある。仏教の哲学観は、ホログラフィー哲学観である。この仏教の哲学観は、现代の科学哲学を完全に呑み込み、収容可能である。

     

    精神と物质の研究はどのようにすべきか。区别して研究できるのか。物质を研究して,さらに现代科学の手段と方法で精神を研究すれば,现代科学の方法では、精神と物质の研究には、手薄であったことにきづく。

     

    摩诃不思议现象はまた超自然现象と呼ばれている。人类の既知の知识を超え,あるいは现代科学哲学理论のより解釈不能なことや现象を指している。例えば,肉身不灭,舎利,神通,火光三昧,人体自然発火などがある。

     

    ここでは超自然现象に対して深く追究するつもりはないが,前述した分析と仮説および例を合わせれば,现代科学哲学の観点の有限性,また精神概念を导入することの重要性に対して十分に説明したと考える。

     

    これらの现象は超自然现象というよりは,むしろ现代の科学哲学の研究方法をもっては、それを解明するだけの方法はまだ备えていないと言ったほうがいいだろう。现代の科学哲学は不完全である理由は,物质のことしか考えず,精神のことを见落としているところにある。物质と精神は両者の间は矛盾しながら统一している対であり,互いに依存しあい,影响し合って,また相互転化している。现代科学哲学は明らかに物质実证のみを重视するが,精神要素の影响と働きを见落としている。

     

    まとめ

     

    空海、弘法大师は生涯に渡って密教の教法を积极的に研钻し,慈悲喜舍、六度万行し,最终的に不灭の肉身まで达した。不灭な肉身を成就している空海を研究するには、教法からの空论を研究することが、研究といえるのか。

     

    现代の人々は西洋科学を受け入れ,だんだん物质実证主义の道に入り,完全に精神の働きを见落としてしまった。そのため,仏教,密教の研究はよるところがなくなっている。しかし,仏教の修行において,精神はきわめて重要である。精神に対する研究の方法はほとんど携わる人がない。多くの学者は、文字の分析や空论に留まっているだけである。西洋科学は完全な哲学科学ではなく,仏法こそ完全な哲学科学である。仏法は唯物と唯识を完璧に合成させ,修行実践の中でそのホログラフィック哲学科学の真理性を示されている。

     

    宇宙は実の宇宙と虚の宇宙とに分けられている。すなわち物质宇宙と精神宇宙のことである。二者は分离してはいけない。実の宇宙はいわゆる仏家がいう「色」で,虚の宇宙は仏菩萨の精神体である。あらゆる超自然现象,摩诃不可思议现象は虚の宇宙と実の宇宙の间の临界状态において発生している。神通はすべての生命体の本能あるいは「潜在能力」である。三密相応の修行は、炭素原子を无秩序状态から整列に并べ替えるエネルギーの吸収过程である。仏教のあらゆる修行は、外部の环境と絶えず精神エネルギーの交流をしている。戒律のホログラフィック意义は修行者がポジティブな精神情报エネルギーを吸収し続けることの保证にある。

     

    参考文献:

     

    1.『金刚峯寺建立修行縁起』,『弘伝全』vol.1,p.54a.

     

    2.『空海僧都伝』,『弘伝全』vol.1,p.32b.なお、この空海の言叶は『御遗告』(『定弘全』vol.7,p.356)にもうかがえる。圣贤(1083-1147)の『高野大师御広伝』下では、この言叶が五月二十八日付の『遗诫』(『定弘全』vol.7,pp.391-392)と结び付けられている(『弘伝全』vol.1,pp.262b-263b)。

     

    3.『太政官符并遗告』,『定弘全』vol.7,p.346.

     

    4.『御遗告』,『定弘全』vol.7,356.

     

    5.同上,p.365.

     

    6.『金刚峯寺建立修行縁起』,『弘伝全』vol.1,p.55a.

     

    7.今日では、遗告类を空海真撰とする説は采られない。なお、各遗告の成立过程については、武内孝善「御遗告の成立过程について」,『印度学仏教学研究』vol.43,no.2vol.86,pp.607-611,1995.および同「御遗告の成立过程-附・御遗告项目対照表12-」,『密教学会报』vol.35,1996.などを参照。

     

    8.兼意『弘法大师御伝』,『弘伝全』vol.1,218a-b.

     

    贤宝『弘法大师行状要集』vol.6,『弘伝全』vol.3,pp.193a-194a.

     

    9.『大般若波罗蜜多経』vol.53,T.5,p.298c.

     

    10.いわゆる「遗告类」の内、『御遗告』と『太政官符案并遗告』の中に、都率往生に関する记事が载せられている。ただし、「遗告类」は空海真撰とは见なし难いため、松本昭先生はこの点について、「空海の遗告を编集する时、都率信仰を持つものがいて混入したと思える」(『弘法大师入定説话の研究』,p.190,六兴出版,1982)と述べられている。

     

    11.『成唯识论』vol.3,T31,p.12c.なお、基の『成唯识论述记』vol.3末では、道理三世・神通三世・唯识三世の3种类を论じているが、その内の唯识三世では「多分分别妄心所変。似去来相。実唯现在。此中论文。法体离言但唯有识」(T43,p.339c)とある。

     

    12.『新纂大日本続蔵経_第八十巻_五灯会元巻第三』pp.69-70,国书刊行会。

     

    13.『新纂大日本続蔵経_第八十巻_五灯会元巻第一』pp.31-31,国书刊行会。

     

    14.九华山官僚机関HPhttp://www.fo365.cn/gsgl_list.asp?action=more&c_id=43)を参照。

     

    15.JoanCarrollCrutzTheIncorruptibles,TheUnitedStates,1977.

     

    16.『大智度论』vol.28には、「五通是菩萨所得。今欲住六通是仏所得。若菩萨得六神通可如来」(T.25,p.264a)とある。

     

    17.『宋高僧伝』などにその例は数多く绍介されている。例えばVol.7の希圆伝や玄约伝などを参照(T.50,p.746a-b)。

     

    18.『新纂大日本続蔵経_第八十巻_五灯会元巻第一』pp.28-31,国书刊行会。

     

    19.『新纂大日本続蔵経_第八十巻_五灯会元巻第一』pp.31-32,国书刊行会。

     

    20.『新纂大日本続蔵経_第八十巻_五灯会元巻第一』pp.32-32,国书刊行会。

     

    21.『新纂大日本続蔵経_第八十巻_五灯会元巻第一』pp.33-33,国书刊行会。

     

    22.『新纂大日本続蔵経_第八十巻_五灯会元巻第一』pp.33-33,国书刊行会。

     

    23.『新纂大日本続蔵経_第八十巻_五灯会元巻第一』pp.34-34,国书刊行会。

     

    24.『新纂大日本続蔵経_第八十巻_五灯会元巻第一』pp.35-35,国书刊行会。

     

    25.『新纂大日本続蔵経_第八十巻_五灯会元巻第一』pp.35-35,国书刊行会。

     

    26.『新纂大日本続蔵経_第八十巻_五灯会元巻第一』pp.36-37,国书刊行会。

     

    27.『新纂大日本続蔵経_第八十巻_五灯会元巻第一』pp.37-37,国书刊行会。

     

    28.『新纂大日本続蔵経_第八十巻_五灯会元巻第一』pp.39-39,国书刊行会。

     

    29.『新纂大日本続蔵経_第八十巻_五灯会元巻第一』pp.39-40,国书刊行会。

     

    30.『新纂大日本続蔵経_第八十巻_五灯会元巻第一』pp.40-40,国书刊行会。

     

    31.陈慰峰『医学免疫学』,人民〓生出版社,2005.

     

    32.吕志平・赵春妮『基础中国医学』,科学出版社,2006.

     

    33.『黄帝内経』出版社:人民卫生出版社2005-01.

     

    34.〓哈嘉瑜伽(http://www.sahajayoga.org.hk/index.html)より転载。

     

    35.『大般若波罗蜜多経』vol.9,T.5,p.45a.

     

    36.『周易系辞上传』上海古籍出版社,1989.

     

    37.『道徳経』,陕西旅游出版社,2004.

     

    38.鸠摩罗什訳『金刚般若波罗蜜経』,T8,p.756c.

     

    39.skt.eka-pinda”(Conze,VajracchedikaPrajnaparamita,p.60.SOR.Vol.13,Is.M.E.O.,1957)なお、吉蔵『金刚般若疏』vol.4には、「世界一合相者。若微尘世界相対。微尘喩十方法身不一。世界喩十方法身不异。但论意用微尘通喩不一异」(T33.p.123a)とあり、「一合相」を、世界を不一不异の関系で説明した语句として解釈している。

     

    40.『妙法莲华経』vol.7,T.9,p.57a.

     

    41.『神僧伝』vol.3,T.50,pp.961c-963a.

     

    42.张颖清『全息生物学』,pp.??-??,高等教育出版社,1989.

     

    43.『一切如来心秘密全身舎利宝箧印陀罗尼経』,T19,p.713a-b.

     

    44.『般若心経秘键』,『定弘全』vol.3,p.3.

     

    45.『大正新修大蔵经第五十卷史传部二-神僧传卷第二』pp.957958

     

    46.『大正新修大蔵经第五十卷史传部二-神僧传卷第七』pp.996997

     

    47.『大正新修大蔵经第五十卷史传部二-神僧传卷第七』pp.996996

     

    48.『大正新修大蔵经第五十卷史传部二-神僧传卷第八』pp.995996

     

    49.『大正新修大蔵经第五十卷史传部二-神僧传卷第八』pp.10011002

     

    50.『大正藏——大般若波罗蜜多经卷第三初分学观品第二之一』

     

    51.『大正藏——大般若波罗蜜多经卷第三百四十六』

     

    52.『水からの伝言』http://www.thank-water.net/picture-book/Picture%20Book.pdf

     

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    佛乘密法之全息哲学科学理趣(硕士论文英文版)


    Master Thesis in 2008

    The Outlook of Modern Science and Philosophy & Kobo-Daishis Body in Samadhi

     

    Shi Zhenyuan (Li Xinzheng)

    Esoteric Buddhism,

    Graduate School of Arts and Letters,

    Koyasan University

     

    Contents

     

    Introduction

    . Kobo-Daishis Body in Samadhi

    . Assumptions of Incorruptible Body from the View of Modern Science and Philosophy

    A.   Buddhist Practice Can Change our Material Bodies

    B.    Buddhist Practice Can Change the Structure of the Organism

    C.    The Spiritualization of Substance & the Materialization of Spirit Incorruptible Body, Sarira, Rainbow Body

    D.   Buddhist Practice will facilitate Integrated Spiritual Energy Field

    . The Significance of Divine Powers in Buddhist Practice & Assumptions of Modern Science and Philosophy

    A. Questions

    B. Explanations in Buddhist Scriptures

    C. The Holo-meaning of Six Paramitas from the Outlook of Modern Science and Philosophy

    D. Assumptions for Six Divine Powers from the View of Modern Science and Philosophy

    E. Examples of Divine Powers:

       Kumarajiva, Vajrabodhi, Subhakarasimha, Yi Xing, Amoghavajra,

    F. Assumptions for Divine Powers from the View of Modern Science and Philosophy

    . Holo-Meaning of Precepts

    . Assumptions for Divine Blessings of Tri-guhya

    . Assumptions for Maha Incredible Phenomena

    Summary

     

    The Outlook of Modern Science and Philosophy & Kobo-Daishis Body in Samadhi

     

    Introduction

     

    As we all know, Kukai entered into the Tang Dynasty in 804, and then he learned the great dharmas of Garbha world and Vajra World from Acarya Hui Guo. After he returned to Japan, he founded the Shingon School, generally known as the East Asian Esoteric Buddhism.


    Kukai moved from Jingoji Temple in Takao Mountain to Koyasan on Nov., A.D.832, then he went on fasting and settled down to dhyana practice(1). Before Kukai came back from Koyasan from Kyoto on May of the first year of Chenghe period (A.D.835), he told his disciples, “I will return to Koyasan forever”(2). He chosen the place of dhyana on Sept. of that year and trusted Koyasan to Shinnen (3), one of his disciples. He entered into Samadhi on the morning of next year’s May 21st (4). Kukai’s Samadhi indicates surpassing life and death and waiting for Maitreya’s descending from the Tushita Heaven Palace.


    Kukai wrote three testaments on May 15(5), then he prepared to enter into Samadhi and practiced dhyana for four times every day. After he announced the TestamentsKukai came to Kyoto for the last time to prepare for the future development of the Shingon school(6). Nowadays some scholars doubt whether it was Kukais own writing(7). After Kukai entered into serenity, his disciples continuously dedicated to worshiping practices for 49 days, then they carried Kukais body together with his dhyana chair to Okunoin and placed him in the stone room 2 meters below the enshrined temple.


    Many years later, Presbyter Kangen, a tertiary disciple of Shinnen, the ninth successor of Toji Temple, thought it necessary to make clear about Kukai’s body. Kangen asked Emperor Go-Daigo to bestow a grand name to Kukai, while Emperor Go-Daigo also dreamed of Monk Kukai, so he bestowed Kukai the posthumous name of “Kobo-Daishi” as well as a kasaya. 87 years passed since Kukai entered into samadhi, Monk Kangen and his two disciples went on a pilgrimage to Koyasan with the kasaya, they entered into Kobo-Daishi’s stone room. But they couldn’t see anything at first; they believed it was caused by their sin, so they exerted themselves to repent. After a while, they regained their vision, and saw Kobo-Dashi’s ragged clothes, long nails and hair. The beads scattered everywhere since the string was decayed. Kobo-Dashi’s body was as limber as alive. So they dressed up Kobo-Dashi with the new garment, gave tonsure to him, trimmed his nails, and then closed the stone room again (8).


    No matter Kukai’s body is alive or not, we can still continue the investigation.

     

    . Kukais Body in Samadhi

    Kobo-Dashi Kukai entered into samadhi at sixty-three, his body remains incorruptible even to nowadays, and receives disciples’ worships every day. A lot of researchers have presented perfect literary explanation to Kukai’s samadhi based on Buddhist and Esoteric Buddhist theories.

    The Large Sutra on Prajnaparamita, Vol.53, Differentiate Mahayana for The First Time 3/15 Sec. says,


    Shanxian, when a Bodhisattva is practicing prajna paramita, he must be free from the beguilement of any gains. He must take a desolate road and see a discarded body, after one or two days or seven days, the body will swell and become black and blue with rotten flesh and ulcerated dark blood, and give off bad smell. (9)”


    Here we can see that a human body will perish after death, the same is true in Modern Medical Science.


    Then how comes to an incorruptible body? According to modern medical science, coli group will decompose the cells soon after one’s death, then the body will perish. How to explain the fact that Kukai and many other eminent monks’ bodies remain incorruptible? Seemingly a very simple question, however it is not easy to elucidate it clearly. Maybe we can say, it is the difference between a Buddhist practicer and ordinary people, after all, an incorruptible body is against with what we have learned in modern medical science.


    Why a Buddhist practicer can leave an incorruptible body? If we fail to give a sound explanation, then Buddhist practice may fall into the abyss of agnosticism. Buddhist dharma is the ultimate truth, and there is some truth in modern science and philosophy, so it is reasonable to explain truth in another way. Most of the Buddhist researches in modern and previous times emphasized investigations based on words and texts, very few people thought about applying science and philosophy to interpret Buddhist theory. There were no written records of Buddhist dharma at the beginning. Words are only used to express meanings. If we cling to words, then enlightenment is more difficult than to fly into the sky.


    Did Kobo-Dashi already attain Buddhahood? If yes, then it seems like a dilemma because of the Maitreya worship of Shingon Buddhism.


    Maitreya worship is obviously an exoteric Buddhist view, while in esoteric Buddhism, one could reach Buddhahood during lifetime, thus Kukai’s entering into Samadhi conflicts with the belief of waiting for Maitreya’s descending, however, we can accept it as a kind of expediency of Buddhist teaching (10).


    According to Buddhism, the past, the present and the future actually coincide at the same point. If we accept the idea, then there’re no conflicts between the esoteric theory of “reaching Buddhahood during lifetime” and Kobo-Dashi’s Maitreya worship. Modern physics tells us, when an object moves at the velocity of light, then time is still; when it moves faster than light, then time flows in reverse direction and goes back to the past; if an object moves slower than light, then time flows forward. We still don’t know whether there are some substances that could move faster than light, but we do know that human’s thought or idea could outreach the limit of lightspeed. Although it is difficult to be tested with the help of instruments, we can still understand it easily. Meanwhile, one could also think back, recall what happened in the past, such as things happened yesterday or the day before. “Three Realms are only visions of consciousness” is the main viewpoint of the Consciousness-Only School, substances, the visible entities, are only illusories, just like flames or empty flowers. Human “idea” is a kind of spiritual overflow, thus we could also understand “the three times are only visions of consciousness”, the past, the present and the future shift in the light of our faith (11).


    Let's leave the Buddhist meaning aside for the moment, “emptiness” is also a relative concept, generally speaking, emptiness is nothing. A human cell is relatively nothing in the whole body, one man is relatively negligible in the whole human being, the earth is tiny in the solar system, the solar system is only a paltry part of the Milky Way Galaxy, the Milky Way Galaxy is “empty” in the boundless universe. If all the galaxies gather together, they are “void” in the vast, boundless space.


    If we can’t explain the concept with modern science and philosophy, it may be difficult to understand. After all, sermon is different from reasoning, so we must explain Buddhist concept from the view of modern science and philosophy.


    Then what are the explanations to incorruptible body in Buddhist scriptures?


    It is difficult to understand if we cannot explain it with modern science and philosophy, after all, there is a great distinction between sermon and reasoning, so we must try to explain it with modern science and philosophy.


    Then how it is explained in Buddhist scriptures about incorruptible body?


    Who set the earliest record of an incorruptible body in history? Maybe Master Hui Neng will appear in our minds simultaneously. Master Hui Neng, the sixth patriarch of Chan School, entered into parinirvana at 76 years old at Guoen Temple, Xinzhou, and his body is preserved well even to nowadays.


    Relative Records of Chan School says, “Lu in Xinxing County chopped and sold firewood to support his mother. One day he carried firewood to the market and heard someone reciting the Diamond Sutra. Then he asked the man, “Who taught you the sutra?” The man replied, “Master Hong Ren at Huangmei Hill, Jizhou persuaded me to read the sutra in order to look insight the true nature and attain Buddhahood. Lu went back to his home and bade his mother farewell, then sent out to Shaoyu, where he met a bosom friend called Liu Zhilue. Zhilue’s aunt was a Buddhist nun, called Endless Treasure (Wujinzang). She once read the Nirvana Sutra, Lu listened for a while, then he told her the meaning of the sutra. When the nun asked the meaning of a word, Lu answered, “I cannot read the words but I know the meaning.” The nun said, “How could you understand the meaning if you can’t read the words?” Lu answered, “Buddhas’s moksa has nothing to do with words.”  The nun was astonished and called him a Buddhist practicer. Local residents admired his wisdom and made offerings to him. Then he arrived at Huangmei during Xianxiang period, Master Hong Ren was very satisfied with him and told him to hull rice. Then Hui Neng held the stone and hulled rice for eight months. One day, Hong Ren demanded his disciples to tell a Buddhist hymn. The chief monk, Shenxiu, wrote a Buddhist hymn on the wall. Hui Neng secretly asked a lad to write a Buddhist hymn beside Shenxiu’s hymn. Master Hong Ren called him in, handed him the kasaya and said, “It is not an ordinary robe, but a priceless token passed on from our patriarchs.” Then Master Hui Neng came to the south with it.


    It was the first year of Yifeng period, when Master Yin Zong of Nanhai gave the tonsure to him on 15th of the first lunar month. He was initiated into full monkhood on 8th, Feb by Master Zhi Guang of the Vinaya School at Faxing Temple, after that he began carrying on and promoting the Dongshan Dharma-Gate.(Master Dao Xin and Master Hong Ren all lived at Dongshan Hill.) Then he returned to Baolin Temple, the earldormen of Shaozhou asked him to take charge of a large temple. Over one thousand followers gathered, and Master Hui Neng preached dharma to them on an earth platform. His words was recorded and compiled into the Platform Sutra.


    Master Hui Neng entered into nirvana at 76 years old, on Aug 3rd, the second year of Xiantian period, and was buried at Caoxi. Xian Zong of the Tang Dynasty bestowed him a posthumous title, “Great Reflection (Da Jian)”. His pagoda was engraved with the words, “Perfect, Peaceful, Upright and Genuine” (Yuan, He, Zheng, Zhen”). He is the sixth patriarch of the Chan School since the first patriarch Bodhidharma. Master Hui Neng promoted the Chan School at Shaoyang, while Shen Xiu at Luoxia, thus people called them “South Neng and North Xiu”. Master Dao Xin, the forth patriarch once looked into the distance and saw purple clouds hanging over the Shuangfeng Hill and six white lights spreading out. Then he asked Hong Ren, “Could you read the sign?” Hong Ren answered, “It suggests that Master will have a branch and it will last for sixth generations.” Just as he said, Fa Rong, a disciple of Master Dao Xin, preached at Niutou Hill in Jinling, and the branch lasted for six generations. The sixth patriarch, Master Hui Zhong of Nanyang was also called “the sixth patriarch of Niutou”. Master Puji at Mount Song respected Master Shen Xiu as the sixth patriarch, and called himself the seventh patriarch of Chan School. So Du Fu, the great poet once said he visited the seventh patriarch and asked for the Chan dharma (Figure a).



    Master Hui Neng638713was a monk in the Tang Dynasty, also known as Master Liuzu, Master Da Jian. He is the sixth patriarch of Chinese Chan School. His ancestral home is Fanyang (in Hebei), his family name is Lu. He was born at Xinxin, Nanhai (Guangdong). He once donated his home, and made it into Guoen Temple, he demanded his disciples to build Baoen Pagoda in the temple in the first year of Xiantian period (712). He returned to Guoen Temple on July of next year, then he entered into nirvana at 76 years old on August. His body didn’t decay and has been preserved well even to nowadays; it is still enshrined at Caoxi. Emperor Xianzong of the Tang Dynasty bestowed him a posthumous title, “Chan Master Da Jian”. Emperor Tazong of Song Dynasty bestowed him a posthumous title, Chan Master Zhen Zong during the Taping Xingguo period (976983);later Emperor Ren Zong of Song Dynasty bestowed him a posthumous title, Chan Master Pu Jue; Emperor Shen Zong of Song Dynasty bestowed him a posthumous title, Chan Master Yuan Ming” (12). The following is recorded in General Buddhist Chronicles, Vol. 13:



    The 33th patriarch Master Hui Neng entered into nirvana. His family name was Lu, his family came from Fanyan. His father, Xingtao, was demoted to Xingzhou, Nanhai during the Wude period, then his family lived there. His father passed away when he was three years old, his mother brought him up. When he grown up, his family was poor, he had to work as a woodcutter. One day, when he carried firewood to the market, he heard someone reading the Diamond Sutra; he was surprised and asked the man, “What are you reading now? Who taught you this?” The man answered, “It is the Diamond Sutra, and I got it from Master Hong Ren at Huangmei. When he returned home, he told his mother that he hoped to find the master at Huangmei. Master Hong Ren realized his ability at the first sight. Later Master Hong Ren passed on the dharma as well as the kasaya to him, and told him to retreat between Huaiji and Sihui. Master Hui Neng arrived at Nanhai on Jan 8th, the first year of Yifeng period.



    After he came back, he preached dharma to the public. One day, he told many people, “All the virtuous and learned friends, please purify your mind and listen. Your own nature is Buddha, please don’t doubt it, nothing can be established without it. It is your own nature that creates everything. So it is said in sutras, “Ideas create various worlds, when the ideas are extinguished, the world will vanish too. If you want to attain the fundamental wisdom, you must enter into the Samadhi of One Behavior and the Samadhi of One Appearance. If you could keep a peaceful mind on any conditions, free from greed and hatred, desire and repulsion; leave the ideas of good and bad behind, be always leisurely and quietly with a clear conscious, then this is called ‘the Samadhi of One Appearance’. If you could always keep a righteous heart under any conditions at anywhere, your hearts are never moved by environments, then your hearts have become the Pure Land, this is called ‘the Samadhi of One Behavior’. These two kinds of Samadhi are just like seeds in soil which can grow into fruits. Today, like a timely rain pouring down and nourishing seeds, my discourse is watering your Buddha nature. Those who listen my words are bound to attain Bodhi, those who follow my words are sure to get the wonderful fruit.”



    Master Hui Neng preached dharma and enlightened people, once there were over one thousand learners gathering at the same time. He took his leave and returned to Guoen Temple, his former residence at Xinzhou on July of the next year. His disciples said with tears, “Master, would you come here again?” Master Hui Neng answered, “Leaves fall down to the root silently.” His disciples asked again, “Who will get Master’s true dharma?” Master answered, “Those who attain Bodhi have a clear idea.”


    When he came to Guoen Temple, he told his disciples on Aug 3rd, “I attained the dharma and the kasaya from Master Hong Ren, now I preach the dharma to you but will not pass on the kasaya. Your faiths are now mature and you are sure to attain the Bodhi, listen, ‘various seeds have been buried in the spiritual soil, and they’re now sprouting as the Dharma rain is falling, and when you perceive the blooming flower, the Bodhi fruit will ripen soon.’”



    Master Hui Neng said, “There’re no two dharmas or natures. The Dharma is clear without any visions. There is no need to meditate since the heart is intrinsically pure, selecting and rejecting are like holding a candle to the sun. Please try your best to be harmonious with conditions. It is the time for me to enter into nirvana, take care of yourselves.” With these words, Master Hui Neng took the lotus position and then passed away. The mountain forest turned into white, birds and animals cried with grief; iridescent clouds and scented mist were hanging over for several days. Mr. Weiju, the governor of Guangzhou, led all the officials of Shaoyu and Xinxing and carried Master’s body to Baolin Temple at Caoxi, then built the pagoda. Master Hui Neng’s body has been preserved well even to nowadays.


    The earliest record about the Samadhi of Total Cessation (nirodha-samapatti) was set by Mahakasyapa, the principal disciple of Sakyamuni Buddha. It goes like this in the Five Lights Harmonized in Perfection:


    Mahakasyapa, the first patriarch, was a Brahman at Magadha. He used to work as a goldsmith. He was familiar with the know-how of gold and could make the gold flexible. Biography of Dharma-Transmission says:


    In the past, many kalpas ago, when Buddha Vipassi entered into nirvana, the four groups of disciples built a pagoda. As time went by, the face of the gold Buddha image enshrined in the pagoda became imperfect. A poor girl held a piece of gold pearl, then went to the goldsmith, and asked him to decorate the face of Buddha image. After the goldsmith finished the task, they made a vow together, “We two make the vow that we’ll become husband and wife.” Thus the goldsmith had a golden body in 91 kalpas and later he was born in the Brahma Heaven. After that, he was born in a brahma family at Magadha in the middle of India. His name was Mahakasyapa, which means Great Brilliance, this is because the golden gloss on his body. He wished to leave home, become a monk and enlighten all.


    As Buddha Shakyamuni said, “Wellcome, Bhiksu”, his air fell to the ground spontaneously, and a kasaya was draped over his shoulders. Buddha Shakyamuni often praised him as the first one among his disciples. Buddha also said, “I shall impart the clear dharma eye to you, you must pass on the dharma and couldn’t break off the succession.”


    Nirvana Sutra says, “When Bhagava wanted to enter into nirvana, Kasyapa wasn’t there, Bhagava told his chief disciples, ‘When Kasyapa comes, let him preach the treasury of true dharma eye.’”

    At that time, Kasyapa was in the Pippala Cave on Mount Grdhrakuta and watched the rare bright, so he entered into Samadhi, and saw with his clear divine eye that Bhagava was going into nirvana beside Helem River. He said to his disciples, “How fast that Buddha went into nirvana!” Then he came to the sal and wept woefully. Buddha stretched out his legs from the gold coffin.


    Kasyapa said to those bhiksus, “Bhagava was cremated; it is not our task to enshrine Buddha’s sarira but to compile a collection of Buddha’s dharma teachings and carry forward.” Then he told a Buddhist hymn, “Buddha’s disciples, please don’t enter into nirvana, those who have attained divine powers should come here and compile Buddha’s dharma teachings together.” Thus all those with divine powers convened at the Pippala Cave on Mount Grdhrakuta.”


    At that time, Ananda didn’t extinguish all the afflictions, and were not allowed to participate, later he attained arhatship, and could take part in the convention. Kasyapa said to others, “Ananda owns the dharani of erudite; he’s a man of great wisdom. He often accompanied Buddha, and his practice was pure. The Buddhist dharma teachings that he has heard are kept in his mind without any oblivion. Buddha praised him as his smartest disciple. We should invite him to compile the Sutta Pitakat.”  The multitude was in silence.


    Kasyapa said to Ananda, “Now you could preach the Dharma teachings.” Ananda followed his suggestion; he observed others and said, “Bhiksus and other retinues couldn’t keep their sublimity without Buddha, just like stars in the heaven without the moon.” With this hymn, he bowed his head to the monks’ feet, then ascended the dharma seat and said, “Thus have I heard. Once the Buddha abided at somewhere and preached a sutra, all the gods, humans, and asuras, and others from all the worlds, made obeisance to Buddha, and followed Buddha’s teachings. At that time, Kasyapa asked these bhiksus, “Are there any mistakes in Ananda’s recitation?” They answered, “Not different from the World Honored One’s teachings.” Then Kasyapa told Ananda, “I shall leave the world soon, now I entrust the true Dharma to you. You must guard it well, listen to my hymn: Various dharmas follow the original dharma; dharma and non-dharma are all empty. Why there are differences between dharma and non-dharma in an integral whole?” When he finished the Buddhist hymn, he went to Mount Kukkutapada with the sanghati, waiting for Maitreya’s birth in this world. It was the year Bing-chen, the fifth year of King Xiao of Zhou.


    Arya Kasyapa asked a non-Buddhist, “What is my ‘ego’?” Arya answered, “The one looking for ‘ego’ is your own ‘ego’.” The non-Buddhist asked, “This one is my ‘ego’, then where is master’s ego?” Arya answered, “The one you ask about, and I’m seeking for.” One day, a samanera saw Arya tramping the earth, and then asked, “Why Arya do it yourself?”Arya answered, “Who could do it for me if I don’t?”(13)


    According to the historical records, Arya Kasyapa entered into Samadhi at Mount Kukkutapada after he passed on the dharma to Arya Ananda. Arya Kasyapa must be the first one who entered into nirvana in meditation. It is said that Arya Kasyapa has been in Samadhi at Mount Kukkutapada, waiting for Maitreya’s descending from the Tusta Heaven Palace and attaining Buddhahood.


    Every few years, there have been Bhiksus or Bhiksunis who entered into nirvana and left incorruptible bodies in China since the Tang Dynasty. For example, tens of Buddhist monks’ incorruptible bodies are well preserved at China’s Jiuhua Mountain, Bodhisattva Ksitigarbha’s bodhi place, while some incorruptible bodies were destroyed during the Culture Revolution. According to the records of Jiuhua Mountain, Ksitigarbha Jin, Ren yi, Hua De, Long Shan, Fa Long, Chang En, Ming Jing, Da Xing, Ci Ming, De Feng, Ding Hui, Sheng Chuan, Wu Xia and others all left incorruptible bodies. (Jiuhuashan website: http://www.fo365.cn/gsgl_list.asp?action=more&c_id=43). Besides the mainland, Buddhist monk or nun’s incorruptible bodies were also recorded in Taiwan and other places (14).


       Can we view an incorruptible body as the sign or proof of Buddhahood? Although there are tens of thousands of dharma gates, incorruptible bodies and sariras may well illustrate the effects. Of course an incorruptible body and sariras should not be reckoned as the criteria of one’s Buddhist achievement, for there are non-Buddhist incorruptibles, for example, Bernadette, a French nun (Figure 2, 1977, from The Incorruptibles (15) written by an American Catholic, Joan Carroll Cruz) and an old woman named Zhou Fengchen at Xianghe County, Hebei Province.


    It takes three incalculable long eons to attain Buddhahood in exoteric Buddhism, while one could attain Buddhahood during a lifetime in esoteric Buddhism. The scriptures of Shingon Buddhism and patriarchs’ works have elaborated it; an esoteric Buddhist should be familiar with it.

    Are the concept of incorruptible body and the Samadhi of Total Cessation the same? Are there any differences? In fact, Kobo Daishi and above-mentioned many others only entered into nirvana, not Samadhi. There should be great distinctions between them.


    The forming principle of incorruptible bodies for Buddhist and non-Buddhist should be the same. According to the interpretation of esoteric Buddhism, all sentient beings are the co-equal bodies of Buddha Vairochana. They have the same Buddha nature, but in different names and forms. However, it may go too far if we consider an incorruptible body as the sign of Buddhahood. Nevertheless, one must acquire the six divine powers before attaining Buddhahood. Properly speaking, attaining Buddhahood includes attaining Buddhahood actually or only in the sense of inner nature. Actually attaining Buddhahood requires the achievement of the six divine powers (16).


     

    . Assumptions of Incorruptible Body from the View of Modern Science and Philosophy


    A.   Buddhist Practice Can Change the Structure of Material Bodies

    Firstly, we must make it clear that if we don’t follow Buddhist teachings, then our body will undergo birth, aging, sickness, and death like all the other living beings. On the part of “death”, a Buddhist praticer’s death differs from those of ordinary people. It is obviously demonstrated by the sariras of those great virtues and eminent monks (17). Some saints even left incorruptible bodies, or entered into the Samadhi of Spiritual Light, namely rainbow body. “Sarira”, “Incorruptible Body”, and “Rainbow Body” could account for the material transformation of the body structure; practice can even change one’s appearance. Theoretical assumptions of these transformations will be illustrated in the following passages.


    The concept of “Rainbow Body”: “Rainbow Body”, namely “the Samadhi of Spiritual Light”, that is to say, the Buddhist practicer entered into nirvana while his body dissolved into colorful lights and disappeared (like rainbow). According to the esoteric Buddhist doctrine of six elements, when a practice attains Buddhist achievement, he will reach the true nature of the six elements: earth, water, fire, air, space and consciousness. Consciousness is the spiritual form of one’s soul; in fact, consciousness is the aggregation of spiritual information. Thus we can view “rainbow body” as the spiritualization of one’s material body.


    The Five Lights Harmonized in Perfection, Vol. 1 says:

    Buddha Shakyamuni was the fourth Buddha of Bhadra Kalpa (blessed kalpa age). He was born in a Ksatriya family; his father was King Suddhodhana, his mother was Mahamaya. He became the heir bodhisattva to the Buddha, and was born in the Tusita Heaven Palace. His name was Deity of Superior Virtue, or Bodhisattva of Light Guard. He enlightened the deities and demonstrated the practice of heir bodhisattva. He appeared in the worlds of ten directions and preached the Dharma. Lalitavistara Sutra says, “When Buddha was born in the Ksatriya family of King Shuddhodana, he was shining great light of wisdom and illuminated worlds in ten directions. Gold lotuses emerged out of the ground, carrying his both feet naturally. Then he walked seven steps towards each direction, namely the east, the west, the south and the north. He pointed at the heaven with one hand and at the earth with another hand, then made a lion roar, “In the heavenly and earth realm as well as worlds in the four directions, I am the supreme honored one. It was April 8th, the year of Jia Yin, namely, the 24th year of King Zhao of Zhou.


    He reached the age of 19 on Feb. 8th, and hoped to leave home. He said to himself, “What else shall I encounter?” Then he came around the four gates, and saw the four things, he was deeply moved and thought, “I want to get free from birth, aging, sickness and death.” In midnight, a deity named Jingju appeared at his window and said to him with joined palms, “It’s the time to leave the home, and you can depart now.” The Prince became joyful when he heard it, then he left the city and meditated at the Dandaka.


    At first he learned the meditation of the realm of nothingness at Arankaran for three years, and then he realized it was not right and gave up. Then he came to Udraka and learned the meditation of neither perception nor non-perception, and abandoned it when he realized it was not right. Hereafter, he came to Gayasisa, and ate hemp and wheat with those heretics for three years. Thus Buddhist scriptures said, “Buddha’s mind was clear and free from the flux of thoughts and feelings, thus subdued all those heretics.” Buddha tried the mistaken dharmas, thus revealed the expedient means. He enlightened those heretics and led them to the Bodhi.


    The Sutra of General Collection said, “The Bodhisattva attained enlightenment on Feb 8th when a bright star rose, and became the master of celestial and human beings. At that time, he was 30 years old.” It was the year of Gui Wei, or the 3rd year of King Mu of Zhou. Later he turned the dharma wheel of the Four Noble Truth for Kaundinya and the other four persons, then they all attained enlightenment. After Buddha preached the dharma for 49 years, he said to his disciple Mahakasyapa, “I will impart the clear dharma eye to you, marvelous nirvana, formless dharmata or the wonderful Proper Dharma. You must protect the dharma.” He also told Ananda, “Help him preach the dharma, and should not let the dharma be broken off.” Then he said a hymn, “The dharma originally follows emptiness and emptiness flows out the dharma. Now I impart the dharma of emptiness, is there an empty dharma?” When he finished the hymn, he told Mahakasyapa, “I will bestow the sanghati sewn with gold thread to you, and you must give it to Bodhisattva Maitreya when he is born in this world.” Kasyapa bowed his head to the Buddha's feet and said, “Very nice, I shall follow Buddha’s instruction to show my respect and submission to the world honored one.”


    At that time the world honored one went to Kusinagara and said to the masses, “Now I feel backache, and will go into nirvana.” Then he came to the side of Helem River, sleeping on the right side of the body under the Sal tree. Later he rose from the coffin, and preached dharma for his mother. He showed his feet out of the coffin in order to enlighten Jivakajiva, and told the hymn of impermanence, “All phenomena are impermanent; this is the way of birth and death. After birth and death, I’ll enjoy the nirvana.” At that time, his disciples all tried to cremate his body with scented firewood, while the gold coffin remained intact. So they sang a hymn before the Buddha, “Mundane flames cannot set fire, the world honored one, please cremate your golden body with the fire of Samadhi.” Then the coffin rose as high as seven tala trees, flying to the sky and back, then he burned his own body with the fire of Samadhi. After a while, the disciples got Buddha’s holy relics for 8 hu (a dry measure used in former times, originally equal to 10 dou) and four dou.  It was on Feb. 15th, the year of Ren Yin, or the 52rd year of King Mu of Zhou (18).


    We can conclude that natural fire cannot cremate the Buddha’s body; only the fire of Samadhi can set fire. Fire can burn all material things, why it cannot burn Buddha’s body? Maybe we can understand it in this way, the material fire, or natural fire cannot burn the spiritual body, because the world honored one’s material body has been changed substantially through Buddhist practice.


    However, Ananda, the second patriarch in ancient India, attained the Samadhi of Moving Air.


    The Five Lights Harmonized in Perfection, Vol.1 says:

    Arya Ananda, the second patriarch, was born in Rajagaha, his father was Dronodana who was the brother of Suddhodana, thus Ananda was the Buddha’s cousin. Ananda means jubilation or merriment, because he was born on the night that Buddha attained the Bodhi. He was erudite and intelligent with excellent memory. The world honored one praised him as the first disciple at dharani. He had so many great merits and virtues in his past lives that he could keep the dharma just like water poured into a pot. Thus the Buddha appointed him as his acolyte.


    One day, Ananda said to Buddha, “Today when I came to the town, I saw a strange thing.” Buddha asked, “What did you see?” Ananda said, “When I entered into the town, I saw a group of musicians dancing, and when I got out, I saw everything were impermanent. Buddha said, “Yesterday, when I came to the town, I also saw something strange.” Ananda asked, “Oh, what’s the strange thing?” Buddha answered, “When I entered into the town, I saw a group of musicians dancing, and when I went out, I also saw a group of musicians dancing.”


    One day, Ananda asked Kasyapa, “Senior Brother, did the world honored one pass on anything else besides the kasaya sewn with gold thread?” Kasyapa called Ananda’s name, and Ananda replied. Kasyapa said, “You should turn upside down your time rod and look inside yourself!”


    Later King Ajatasattu said to Ananda, “Man of virtue! The Buddha and Kasyapa all entered into nirvana; however I couldn’t pay my respects to them because of the miscellaneous business. I hope Arya can bid farewell to me before you entered into nirvana.” Ananda promised.


    Afterwards, Ananda thought, “My body is as fragile as foam, and now I’m aging, how can this body last long? I have made a promise with King Ajatasattu.” Then he came to the palace, and told the gatekeeper, “I want to enter into nirvana, so I come here and bid farewell to King Ajatasattu.” The gatekeeper answered, “The king is sleeping, I cannot tell him now.” Ananda said, “When the King wakes, please tell him.”


    At that time, King Ajatasattu dreamed of a ceremonial canopy decorated with seven treasures with countless people surrounding and admiring. After a while, gust and rainstorm swept and broke the handle, thus the jewels and rucaka fell onto the ground. The king was astonished. When he woke, the gatekeeper told him about Ananda. The king cried with great sorrow, and came to Vaishali. He saw Ananda seating in lotus position in the stream of the Ganges River. The king made obeisance to him and said, “I bow to the honored one of the three realms, why do you leave me like this. Please be merciful, and wait for a while.” At that time the king of Vaishali was there too, he said, “How fast that Arya leave this world, and will enter into nirvana; please wait for a while and accept my offerings.”


    Ananda then said a hymn, “Please keep sublimity, and don’t cry for me. I will enter into serenity and leave everything.” Ananda aslo said, “If I am partial to one kingdom, then other kingdoms will contend, it is not right. I must enlighten all sentient beings equally. So he entered into nirvana in the middle of the Ganges River. At that time, mountains, rivers and the earth had six kinds of vibration. 500 immortals in the snow-capped mountains saw the auspicious response, and flied there.  They bowed their heads to Arya's feet, and said, “We shall attain Buddhist dharma under Presbyter’s instruction. Please show great mercy and enlighten us.” Arya accepted their request silently, and turned the Ganges River into gold ground, and preached dharma to them.


    Arya thought, “Those enlightened disciples of Buddha should gather here. After a while, the five hundred arhats came from the sky and made the tonsure to those immortals. There were two arhats among the immortals, one was Shangnavasu, and another was Madhyantika. Arya knew they had outstanding dharma talent, so he said to them, “In the past, the Buddha imparted the dharma eye to Mahakasyapa, and Kasyapa imparted to me when he entered into nirvana. Now I will enter into nirvana, and pass on the dharma eye to you. You accept my teaching, and listen to my hymn, “At first I imparted the dharma to you, and say no dharma at all after the transmission. You must enlighten yourselves, and know no-dharma is also not true.” After he passed on the treasure of dharma eye, Arya Ananda flied to the sky, showing 18 transformations, and then he entered into the Samadhi of Moving Air. His body turned into four: one body was enshrined in the Heaven of Trayastrimsha, one was enshrined in the Sagara Palace, one was enshrined by King Vaishali, and the last one was enshrined by King Ajatasattu. They built pagodas and enshrined his holy bodies. It was the year of Gui Si, the 12nd year of King Li of Zhou (19).


    According to the records of the Five Lights Harmonized in Perfection, Vol.1, most of the patriarchs in ancient India attained the Samadhi of Light after Buddha entered into nirvana.


    (1) The 3rd patriarch, Arya Shangnavasu was born at Motulo. His surname was Vesadu, his father was Linshen his mother was Chiaosheyeh. His mother gave birth to him after six years of pregnancy. Shangnavasu was the name of a kind of nine-stem elegant grass in ancient India. When a sage was born, then this grass appeared in a clean place. When Shangnavasu was born, the auspicious grass appeared. Once Buddha wandered and preached at Motulo, he saw a flourishing green forest, he said to Ananda, “This forest is called Urutu. After I entered into nirvana, one hundred years later, a bhiksu called Shangnavasu will turn the Dharma Wheel at here.”


    One hundred years later, Shangnavasu was born, he left home and became a monk, then he attained enlightenment, and accepted Arya Ananda’s dharma eye, hereafter he began enlightening the sentient beings. He stayed at the forest, and made two firedrakes pledge allegiance to Buddhism. The dragons then offered the land to build Buddhist temple. Arya preached dharma for a long time, and thought over the true dharma. Later he met Upagupta at Tali, Upagupta then followed him as his acolyte. Arya asked Upagupta, “How old are you?” Upagupta answered, “I’m seventeen.” Arya asked, “Which one is 17 years old, your body or your nature?” Upagupta answered, “Master’s hair is white, which one is white, your hair or your heart?” Arya answered, “My hair is white, not my heart.” Upaguta said, “My body is 17 years old, not my nature.” Arya then knew he has excellent dharma talent.


    Three years later, Arya gave the tonsure and the complete ordination to him. Arya told him, “In the past, Tathagata imparted the supreme dharma eye to Kasyapa. The patriarchs imparted to me, now I’ll bestow to you, you mustn’t break off the legacy. You learn my teachings and listen to my hymn, “Not dharma or mind, not mind or dharma. When I say the dharma of mind, the dharma is not a dharma of mind.” After he said the hymn, he retreated at Mount Elephant-White in Kashmir. Later he saw in Samadhi that Upaguta had five-hundred disciples who often slacked off. Arya then came to see them and showed the Samadhi of Fierce Dragon to regulate them. He said a hymn, “Understanding is not built on you and me, the supreme is beyond right and wrong. Get rid of your vanity, and you’ll soon attain the achievement of arhat.” The five hundred Bhiksus followed Buddhist teachings and all attained the stage of no affliction. Arya then showed eighteen changes and the Samadhi of Light, and burned his own body with spiritual fire. Upagupta collected his holy relics and buried at Mount Sankal. Each of the five-hundred bhiksus held a long narrow flag, arrived at the mountain, and built a pagoda. It was the year of Yi Wei, the 22nd year of King Xuan of Zhou (20).

    (2) The fifth patriarch Arya Dhritaka was born at Magadha. When he was born, his father dreamed of a golden sun rising from his house and shining heaven and earth. Before him, there was a great mountain decorated with all kinds of jewels. A spring was pouring down from the summit, and spreading to the four directions. Later, he met Arya Upagupta, Upagupta explained, “The treasure mountain symbolizes me. The gushing spring is the endless dharma. Rising sun from the house indicates that you’ll reach Bodhi. Shining heaven and earth suggests that you have extraordinary wisdom.” Dhritaka was glad to hear what his master had said, and sang a hymn, “Lofty Mountain is decorated with seven treasures, and the spring of wisdom is pouring down. The true dharma can enlighten all the relatives.” Arya Upagupta also said a hymn, “I pass on the dharma to you, and you’ll show great wisdom. Golden sun rises from the house and will lighten heaven and earth.” Dhritaka heard his master’s wonderful hymn, then made obeisance to his master and followed his teachings.


    Later he came to the middle of India; there were eight thousand great immortals and Michaka was their head. Michaka heard Arya’s arriving and came to make obeisance to Arya together with other immortals. He said to Arya, “In the past, Master and I were born in the Brahma Heaven, I met an Asitarsi who taught me the way to become an immortal; and Master met a Buddhist disciple and practiced dhyana. Since then, we have been separated from each other in different fortunes for six kalpas.” Arya said, “Yes, we have been separated for several kalpas. Now you can leave false ways and come back to the true dharma of Buddhahood.” Michaka said, “In the past, the Asitarsi foretold, ‘you’ll met your companion after six kalpas, and attain the stage of no affliction.’ Now we two met again, it is because of the past karma, isn’t it? May you show me your great mercy, Master, and let me free from all the afflictions. ” Arya then gave the tonsure to him and let the sainted initiated him to the full monkhood. At first other immortals were arrogant, so Arya showed great divine powers to inspire their bodhicitta. All the immortals became monks at that time. Arya then told Michaka, “In the past, Buddha secretly imparted the great dharma eye to Kasyapa, and those patriarchs passed it on. Now I imparted it to you, you must protect the dharma. Then he said a hymn, “Understanding the heart of dharma, there are no dharma and non-dharma. Awakening is the same with non-awakening, there are no heart as well as dharma.” With this hymn, he flied to the sky and made eighteen changes, then entered into the Samadhi of Light and burned his own body with spiritual fire. Michaka and the eight thousand Bhiksus collected his sariras, and built pagoda at the Ban Tu Mountain. It was the year of Yi Chou, the 5th year of King Zhuang of Zhou (21).


    (3) The sixth patriarch Arya Michaka was born in the middle of India. He wandered to the North India after years of preaching, and watched golden clouds above the battlements; he sighed, and said “it is the sign of a holy man, a bodhisattva who can inherit my dharma must stay here.” So he entered the town, and met a man holding a drinking vessel in the market. The man walked towards Arya, and asked, “Where are you from, Master? And where are you going?” The patriarch answered, “I am from my own heart, and are going to nowhere.” The man asked, “Do you know the vessel in my hand?” The patriarch answered, “This is a dirty vessel containing clean things.” The man asked, “Master, do you recognize me?” The patriarch answered, “I don’t know you, if I know you, then It is not me.” He asked, “Please tell me you name, I’ll tell you the cause later.” The man said, “I have been always born in this kingdom since measureless kalpas ago. My name is Vasumitra Harada.” The patriarch said, “My master Dhritaka told me, in the past, the world honored one visited the North India, and told Ananda, ‘Three hundred years later since my nirvana, a holy man called Vasumitra Harada in the kingdom will become the seventh patriarch of the Chan School.’ The world honored one foretold that you will become a monk.”



    Vasumitra then put down the vessel and made obeisance to the master. He stood beside the master and said, “I remember that many kalpas ago, I was a supporter of Buddhism, and offered a throne to the Buddha. The Buddha then foretold, ‘You’ll preach the supreme dharma during Buddha Shakyamuni’s teachings in the good eon.’ Now it accords with Master’s words, I hope Master will give the tonsure to me.” The patriarch then gave the tonsure to him and initiated him to full monkhood. Then the patriarch told him, “The treasury of true dharma is now imparted to you, please don’t let it break off.” Then the patriarch told a hymn, “No mind and no gains, if someone acclaims he has acquired the dharma, it is not the true dharma. If someone knows that his heart is not the true heart, then he starts to know the dharma of equal hearts.” After this, the patriarch entered into the Samadhi of Swift Lion, flied to the sky above the height of seven tala trees and came back to his own seat, then burned himself with his spiritual fire. Vasumitra collected his holy relics and enshrined at the top of a pagoda within a case decorated with seven treasures. It was the year of Jia Shen, the 15th year of King Xiang of Zhou. (22)



    (4) The tenth patriarch Arya Parsva was born at the middle of India. When he was born, his father dreamed of a white elephant carrying a throne with a bright pearl on it. The elephant came into the door, and the brightness shining the four groups of Buddhist disciples. His father woke when he was born. He followed and served the ninth patriarch and seldom fell asleep. So people called him Arya Parsva. At first, he arrived at Pataliputta and rested under a tree. He pointed at the ground with his right hand, The ground will turn golden and a holy man will come.” With these words, the ground turned golden. Punyayasas, the son of a venerable elder came and joined his palms before him. The patriarch asked, “Where are you from?” He answered, “My heart is not going.” The patriarch asked, “Where do you live?” He answered, “My heart is not still.” The patriarch asked, “You’re not constant?” He answered, “The same with Buddhas.” The patriarch said, “You’re not Buddhas.” He answered, “Buddhas are not right too.” Then the patriarch told a hymn, “The ground turns golden, and I know a holy man will come. He will seat under the Bodhi tree, the flower of enlightenment will bloom.” Punyayasas also told a hymn, “Master seats on the golden ground, and often tells me the true meaning. He Reflects the bright light and shines on me, let me enter into the Samadhi.”



    The patriarch understood his intention, and initiated him into full monkhood. The patriarch told him, “Tathagata’s great dharma treasure is now imparted to you, you must protect it.” The patriarch then told a hymn, “The true body is naturally true, it is reasonable because of the truth. If you understand the genuine truth, you’ll go nowhere and stop nowhere.” After he imparted the dharma, the patriarch showed divine transformations, then entered into nirvana, and burned himself with his spiritual fire. The four groups of disciples carried his sariras with flower baskets, and built a pagoda to enshrine the holy relics. It was the year of Ji Hai, the 27th year of King Zhen of Zhou. (23)



    (5) The thirteenth patriarch Arya Kapimala was born at Pataliputta. At first, he was a non-Buddhist, familiar with those differing theories and had three thousand disciples. Later he attained the dharma from Asvaghosa, and led his disciples to West India. The prince’s name was Free Cloud. He admired Arya’s reputation, and invited him to the palace and made offerings to him. The patriarch said, “Tathagata said, sramana can’t be close to the powerful family of king or minister.” The prince said, “At present, there is a great mountain in the north of the city. And there is a grotto in the mountain, Master, can you meditate there?” The patriarch said, “Yes.” Then they entered the mountain, after several miles, they met a python. The patriarch went straight forward; the python coiled his body, then he imparted the tri-sarana to the python. The python listened, and then left. When the patriarch is nearing the grotto, an old man wearing plain clothes came out; he joined his palms and extended greetings to the patriarch. The patriarch asked, “Where do you live?” The old man answered, “In the past, I was a bhiksu and liked quietness. A novice bhiksu came and asked me questions for several times, I didn’t like his disturbing and was annoyed, thus when I died, I was born as a python. I have lived in the grotto for over thousand years. Just now, I met Arya and heard the precepts, thank you.”



    The patriarch asked, “Is there anyone else who lives in the mountain?” The old man answered, “Go northward for about ten miles, there is a big tree sheltering five hundred dragons, the king of the tree was Nagarjuna, who often preached dharma to the dragons. I often listened to his preachings too. ”


    The patriarch went to the big tree together with his disciples. Nagarjuna greeted him and said, “The isolated mountain is the dwelling of dragons and pythons. Why are you coming here, Supreme Master?” The patriarch answered, “I am not a supreme master, and I’m here to call on a sage.” Nagarjuna thought silently, “Has the master attained the definitive clear dharma eye? Is he the real successor of the true dharma?” The patriarch answered, “Although you thought in your mind, I have got it. If you become a monk, it doesn’t matter whether I’m a holy man or not.” Nagarjuna heard his words and made an apology. Then the patriarch initiated him into the full monkhood together with the five hundred dragons. The patriarch then told him, “Now Tathagata’s great treasury of dharma eye is imparted to you. Listen to my hymn, ‘Not disappear or appear; it is the genuine truth. Who understands the dharma of disappearing and appearing, is not stupid or wise.’ After he imparted the dharma, he showed the divine transformations and burned his own body with spiritual fires. Nagarjuna collected the five-color sariras and built a pagoda. It was the year of Ren Chen, or the 46th year of King Nan of Zhou (24).


    (6) The fifth patriarch Kanadeva was born at Southern India. His surname was Bishara. At first, he pursued meritorious behavior and liked debate. Later he called on Nagarjuna. When he was nearing the door, Nagarjuna knew he was a wise man, and ordered his attendant to place a full bowl of water before the seat. Kanadeva noticed the bowl and put a needle into the water, and they smiled simultaneously. Then Nagarjuna preached dharma to him. Nagarjuna seated and appeared the form of the moon. Only his voice could be heard, while he was invisible. Kanadeva said to the mass, “Today Master shows the Buddhist nature, dharma preaching is not voice or appearance.”



    Later he went to Kapila after he attained the dharma. There lived a venerable elder called Brahma Chingte. One day, agarics like fungus grew on a tree in the garden and the taste was delicious. Only the elder and his second son, Rahula, could take and eat the agarics. The agarics grew after picking, while all the other relatives couldn’t see the agarics. The patriarch knew the reason, and came to the house. The elder asked the reason, the patriarch answered, “In the past, your family made offerings to a bhiksu, while the bhiksu didn’t enlighten his dharma eye. So he was born as the agarics. You and your son sincerely treated him, so you two could enjoy the taste, while others couldn’t.” The patriarch asked the elder, “How old are you?” The elder answered, “Seventy-nine.” The patriarch told a hymn, “The bhiku became a monk but couldn’t understand Buddhist teachings, so he repaid the offerings with his own body. When you are 81 years old, the tree will grow agarics no longer.” The elder heard the hymn, and admired the patriarch much more. So he said, “I’m old and cannot serve Master, I hope my second son can follow Master and leave home.” The patriarch said, “Buddha once foretold, ‘The child will become a great Buddhist master in the second five hundred years after Buddha’s nirvana.’ Now I met him, it coincides with Buddha’s past words.” Then patriarch gave the tonsure to him, and the child followed him as his attendant.



    They came to Pataliputra, and heard those non-Buddhists were going to create obstacles to Buddhism. They discussed for a long time, then the patriarch hold a long streamer into them. They asked the patriarch, “Why don’t you step forward?” The patriarch said, “Why don’t you retreat?” They said, “You look like a bad man.” The patriarch answered, “You look like good men.” They asked, “What have you learn?” The patriarch answered, “You’ve learnt nothing.” They said, “We want to attain Buddhahood.” The patriarch said, “I’ve already enlightened my Buddhist nature.” They said, “You don’t deserve it.”  The patriarch answered, “I really attain the dharma, not you.”  They said, “‘You have not attained the dharma, why you say you do?” The patriarch answered, “You have egocentrism, so you cannot; I don’t have egocentrism, so I attain the dharma naturally.” They could reply, so they asked, “What’s your name?” The patriarch answered, “My name is Kanadeva.” They had heard his name before, so they apologized. At that time, someone still questioned the patriarch; he subdued them with his powerful tongue. Then he told a hymn to his satisfied disciple, Rahula, and imparted the dharma eye. The hymn goes like this, “I tell my successor the dharma of moksha. I have attained nothing, no end and no beginning.” With this hymn, he came into the Swift Samadhi, releasing eight lights, and then entered into nirvana. His disciples built a pagoda to enshrine his holy relics. It was the year of Geng Chen, or the 19th year of Emperor Wen of the Han Dynasty (25).



    (7) The eighteenth patriarch Arya Gayasata Udraka was born at Mati. His father was Tiangai, his mother was Fangsheng. Once they dreamed of a great sage holding a mirror, and then had pregnancy. After seven days, he was born. His body was transparent like colored glaze, aromatic and clean without washing. He liked silence in his childhood, what he said were different form ordinary children. When he travelled with a mirror, he met Arya Sanghanandi. After he attained the dharma, he led his disciples and arrived at the Kushans.



    He watched the curious air in a Brahman’s house. He wanted to enter the house, the house-owner Kumarata asked, “Who are you?” The patriarch answered, “Buddha’s disciples.” Kumarata became worried when he heard Buddha’s name, and closed the door. The patriarch knocked at the door for a long time. Kumarata said, “No one is in the house.” The patriarch asked, “Who said no one?” Kumarata heard his word, and knew he was an unusual person, so he opened the door.



    The patriarch said, “In the past, the world honored one foretold, ‘One thousand years later since I entered into nirvana, a bodhisattva was born at the Kushans who will carry forward the Buddhist teachings.’ Now I met you, it coincides with the prediction. Then Kumarata recalled his previous lives, and hoped to leave home earnestly. After he attained the full monkhood, the patriarch told him a hymn and imparted the dharma, “There are seed and mind ground, the bud will sprout under predestined conditions. The conditions cannot hinder its growth; the stage of no growth is nearing when the bud is growing.” After the patriarch imparted the dharma, he flied to the sky and showed eighteen divine transformations, he entered into the Samadhi of Light, and burned his own body with spiritual fire. His disciples built a pagoda to enshrine his sariras. It was the year of Wu Shen, or the 20th year of Emperor Chen of the Han Dynasty (26).



    (8) The nineteenth patriarch Arya Kumarata was the son of a Brahman at the Kushans. In the past, he was an isvara (live in the sixth heaven of the desire realm). He saw Bodhisattva’s jade strings and adored them, thus he fell to the Trayastrimsha (The second heaven of the desire realm), where he heard Kausika preached prajnaparamita. He ascended to the Brahma Heaven because of the extraordinary dharma. He was clever and good at preaching the dharma, so others reckoned him as their master. It was the time to succeed the patriarch’s dharma, so he was born at the Kushans. Later he came to the Middle India, a Bodhisattva named Jayata asked him, “My parents believe in Buddhism, while they always suffer illness and frustrations; my neighbor always kills other lives, but he is strong, healthy and successful. Why he is so lucky and I’m so unlucky?” The patriarch said, “There is no doubt about it. The retributions connects the past, the present and the future, ordinary people only see that the benevolent one dies early while the cruel one live long, the bad one is lucky while the kind one encounters misfortunes. Then they say there are no causes and effects, or retributions of good and evil. In fact, the results follow a person without any mistakes just like one’s shadow, and cannot vanish even through millions of kalpas.”


    Jayata heard these words and relieved. The patriarch said, “Although you believe in the three karmas, you don’t understand that karmas derive from confusions, confusions derive from consciousness, consciousness derives from non-enlightenment, non-enlightenment derives from your nature. Your true nature is clean, quiet and inspiring without fabrication, birth and death, retribution and success or failure. If you enter into this dharma gate, then you’re not different from Buddha. Good and evil, action and inaction are just dreams.”


    Jayata accepted what the patriarch had said, and recalled his past lives, so he entreated the patriarch to give the tonsure to him.

    After he attained the full monkhood, the patriarch told him, “Now it is the time for me to enter into nirvana, you must carry forward the dharma.” The patriarch imparted the dharma eye to him, and said a hymn, “There is no birth in nature, and it is said to fit in certain kinds of person. No gains in dharma, no doubts on resolution.” He also said, “It is the pure sentence that Buddha Brahmasvara enlightened the nature, you may pass on to posterity.” With these words, he seated and scraped his face with his fingers, then great lights were shining on the four groups of disciples like blooming red lotus, thus he entered into nirvana. Jayata built a pagoda. It was the year of Ren Wu, the 14th year of Xinshi (27).


    (9) The 25th patriarch Arya Basiasita was born in a Brahma family at Kashmir. His father was Silent Deeds, and his mother, Always Ease. At first, his mother dreamed of a divine sword, and then was pregnant. He clenched his left hand when he was born. Later he met Arya Simha who made him recall his past lives and gave him secretly the heart seal of dharma. Later he came to the Southern India. The king’s name was Kyashen; he made offerings to Arya Basiasita. At that time, a non-Buddhist called Venerable Anatman, who was respected by the king before. He envies the patriarch’s arrival, and hope to debate against the patriarch in order to strengthen his status. So he said to the patriarch before the king, “I knew the silent debate without speeches.” The patriarch asked, “How to know who the winner is?” He said, “We don’t strive for victory, but seek the meaning.” The patriarch asked, “What’s the meaning you are seeking for?” He said, “Mindless.” The patriarch said, “How can you get the meaning if you are mindless? He said, “I say mindless, which is not the meaning.” The patriarch said, “You say mindless, which is not the meaning. I say non-mind, which is the meaning.” He asked, “Who can distinguish the meaning?” The patriarch said, “Your term is not the meaning, then what kind of term it is?” He said, “It is not the proper term in order to distinguish unreasonable meaning.” The patriarch said, “The term is not proper, the meaning is unreasonable, who is distinguishing? And distinguishing what?” They debated like this for 59 times, the non-Buddhist cannot reply for 9 times, so he shut up and gave in.


    At that time the patriarch suddenly turned towards the north, he joined his palms and sighed, “I’m grieved that my master Arya Simha was killed today.”


    Then he bid farewell to the king, and arrived at the Southern India, and retreated at the mountain valleys. The king’s name was Heavenly Virtue; he invited the patriarch and made offerings to him. The king had two sons. One was Virtue Victory, who was brutal and strong. The other was Punyamitra, who was gentle but always suffered illness. The patriarch told the reason, and the king’s doubt dissolved.


    A wizard envied the patriarch, and put poison into his food secretly; the patriarch detected and ate the food, while the wizard was poisoned by himself. Then the wizard came to the patriarch and left home. The patriarch imparted him the complete precepts.

     

    Sixty years later, Virtue Victory ascended the throne, he believed in the heretics, and arrested the patriarch. Punyamitra was also prisoned because he admonished the king.


    The king asked the patriarch abruptly, “There are no evil enchanters in my country, what is your school?” The patriarch answered, “There are no black magic in the country. What I have learned is Buddhist dharma.” The king said, “The Buddha entered into nirvana over two thousand years ago. Who is your master?” The patriarch answered, “Mahakasyapa accepted the dharma from the Buddha, and passed it on to the 24th patriarch, Arya Simha, I attained the dharma from him.”



    The king said, “I heard that bhiksu Simha cannot escape from killing, how can he impart the dharma to posterity?” The patriarch said, “My master gave me his kasaya as well as the dharma hymn so as to manifest the heritage.” “Where is the kasaya?” the king asked. The patriarch took out the kasaya from a bag, and showed to the king. The king ordered to set fire to it, when the firewood gone out, the kasaya was still bright with five colors like a new one. The king felt regret, and made obeisance to the patriarch. Since the heritage was clear, the king released Punyamitra.



    Punyamitra entreated the patriarch to give the tonsure to him. The patriarch asked, “Why do you want to become a monk?” Punyamitra answered, “Not for worldly affairs.” The patriarch asked, “For what?” Punyamitra answered, “For Buddhist career.” The patriarch said, “Your Highness is so wise that you must be a holy man who was born into this world.” Thus he permitted the prince to become a monk.


    Punyamitra served the patriarch for six years, and attained the full monkhood at the palace. During the precept ritual, the earth was shaking with various auspicious signs. The patriarch told him, “I’m old now, how can I stay long? You must protect the treasury of true dharma eye, and enlighten all sentient beings. Listen to my hymn, ‘The holy one told the doctrines, no right or wrong in the face of situations. Now I understand the true nature, no way and no reason.’”


    Punyamitra heard the hymn and asked the patriarch again, “Could you pass on the kasaya, Master?” The patriarch answered, “The kasaya is used to prove the heritage because of the disaster. If there is no disaster, the kasaya is no use. Preaching dharma in the ten directions, and people will naturally believe you.” Punyamitra heard the words; he made obeisance to his master and then drew back.


    Then the patriarch showed divine changes, burned his own body with the fire of Samadhi. The sariras piled up on the ground as high as one foot. The king of Virtue Victory built a pagoda to enshrine the sariras. It was the year of Yi You, the third year of Taning during Emperor Ming of Eastern Jin Dynasty (28).


    (10) The 26th patriarch Punyamitra was the second son of the king of Heavenly Virtue at Southern India. After he attained the dharma, he went to the Eastern India. The king’s name was Firmness; he reckoned the Brahmacarin, Dirghanakha, as his master. When Arya was nearing, the king and the Brahmacarin watched a white air rising from the earth to the sky. The king asked, “What is the omen?” The Brahmacarin knew the patriarch will go into the city; he was afraid that the king will change his belief, so he said, “It is the omen that a devil will come!” He discussed with his disciples, “Punyamitra will enter into the capital, who can defeat him?” His disciples said, “We have magic spells and can change the heaven and earth or enter into water and fire, what do you worry about?” The patriarch arrived, and watched the black air hovering above the palace, he said, “It’s only a small mishap.”


    Then he went to the palace directly. The king asked, “Why do you come here?” The patriarch said, “I am going to enlighten the sentient beings.” The king asked, “How to enlighten the sentient beings?” The patriarch answered, “I will enlighten them according to their dispositions.”

    He Brahmacarin heard his words angrily, so he moved a mountain above the patriarch’s head with magic. The patriarch pointed at it, the mountain suddenly appeared above the non-Buddhists. The Brahmacarin and his disciples feared, and paid allegiance to the patriarch. The patriarch was merciful to him, he pointed at the mountain again, and then the illusory mountain disappeared.



    Then he preached the essence of the dharma so as to guide the king toward the truth. He told the king, “A holy man in your kingdom will succeed me.”


    A young Brahman was over 20 years old, his parents passed away when he was a child. No one knew his name. He called himself “Jade String”, so people called him “Jade String Boy”. He wandered on the street and begged for a living like the Bodhisattva of Never Despise. Someone asked him, “Why are you going in a hurry?” He answered, “Why are you going slowly?” Someone asked, “What’s your surname?” He said, “The same with you.” No one knew the reason why he said so.


    Later, the king and Arya came out on the same vehicle. Jade String Boy bowed his head before them. The patriarch asked, “Can you remember the past?” The boy answered, “I remember that many kalpas ago, I lived together with Master. Master preached Mahaprajna, and I preached the deep Sutra. Now I met Master, maybe it coincides with the past.” The patriarch told the king, “The boy is not anyone else but Bodhisattva of Great Power. After this bodhisattva, there are still two holy men, one will preach at southern India; another will pass on the dharma in the Central Nation. They will be born in Indian within four or five years.


    The patriarch named the boy Prajnatara due to the past, and imparted him the treasury of dharma eye. The patriarch told a hymn, “The true nature is hidden in your mind ground, which has no head or tail. It can change into everything when conditions are met, thus we call it prajna for the time being.”


    After he imparted the dharma, the patriarch bid farewell to the king, “I have finished my preaching, and will enter into nirvana. I hope Your Majesty can always protect the supreme dharma.” Then he returned to his seat and passed away in the lotus position. He burned his own body with the fire of Samadhi. The king collected his sariras and built a pagoda. It was the year of Wu Zi, the 13th year of Taiyuan period during the reign of Emperor Xiaowu of Eastern Jin Dynasty (29).


    (11) The 27th patriarch Arya Prajnatara was born at Eastern India. After he attained the dharma, he went to Southern India.


    The king’s name was Aroma Near, who believed in Buddhism and made great offerings respectfully. His piety exceeded ordinary people and bestowed the patriarch a priceless pearl as his offerings.


    At that time, the king had three sons, Sunmoonpuredharma, Sunmeritdharma and Bodhidharma. The third son was a bodhisattva. The patriarch wanted to test them, so he asked the three princes, “The pearl is perfect and bright, is there anything that can compare to it?” The first and second princes said, “The pearl is supreme among seven treasures, and nothing can exceed. No one but Arya’s virtue can match the pearl.”

    The third prince said, “It is only a worldly treasure, which is not the highest. The highest one among treasures is the treasure of dharma. The worldly brightness is not the highest. The highest one among brightness is the brightness of wisdom. The light is worldly light, which is not the highest. The highest one among lights is the light of heart. The light of the pearl cannot illuminate itself, and must make use of the light of wisdom. As we distinguish the light, we know it is the pearl. As we know it is the pearl, we are clear of the treasure. If we want to make clear of the treasure, the treasure cannot appreciate itself. If we want to distinguish the pearl, the pearl cannot appreciate itself. As a pearl cannot appreciate itself, we must make use of the pear of wisdom to differentiate worldly pearl. A treasure cannot appreciate itself, so we must make use of the treasure of wisdom to differentiate the treasure of dharma. While Arya is a master with virtues, so the treasure appears. If all the living beings have virtues, the mind’s treasure will appear too.”



    The patriarch highly praised his wisdom, and asked, “Which one is formless among all substances?” He answered, “Nothing is formless among substances.” The patriarch asked, “Which one is the highest among all substances?” He answered, “Egotism and discrimination of others are the highest.” The patriarch asked, “Which one is the largest among all things?” He answered, “Dharma nature is the largest among all things.”

    The patriarch knew he was the dharma heir, but he said nothing about it because it was not the time.


    When the king of Aroma Near left the world, all the others were wailing, while the third prince Bodhidharma entered into dhyana before the coffin. He arose from dhyana after seven days, and asked to become a monk. After he attained the full monkhood, the patriarch told him, “Tathagata imparted the true dharma eye to Mahakasyapa, the patriarchs passed it on and now to me. I’ll tell you, listen to my hymn, ‘The mind ground grows all kinds of seed, the truth is revealed through various things. The fruits ripen and the Bodhi is perfect, various worlds emerged as the flower is blooming.’”


    After he imparted the dharma, the Arya stood up from his seat, stretched out both hands, and each hand released twenty-seven five-color lights. Then he flied to the sky as high as seven tala trees, burned his own body with the fire of Samadhi. Sariaras rained down from the sky and was collected, then enshrined in a pagoda. It was the year of Ding You, the first year of Daming period during the reign of Emperor Xiaowu of Song in the Southern Dynasties. The king of Eastern India invited the patriarch, after the meal, the king asked, “All the other masters preach the sutras, why Master don’t preach the sutras?” The patriarch answered, “My exhalations are not pulled by the exteriors, and my inhalations don’t abide in the skandha realm, I often preach such sutras for billions of volumes, not just one or two volumes.” (30)



    The above records accounts for the structural transformation of their material bodies and materials can be changed into spirits.

     

    B. Buddhist practice can change the structure of the body, and can protect the body from the decomposition of coli group, in other words, the coli group may identify with the body, thus the body avoids antigen-antibody’s rejection.

     

    There is a famous saying among ancient Buddhists, “Free from the three realms as well as the five elements.” In a nutshell, the three realms are the three intoxications, namely, covetousness, hatred and stupidity. The five elements derived from Taoism. All things are classified into the five elements, “earth, wood, water, fire, metal”, which are similar to the five great elements in Buddhism, “earth, water, fire, air and space”. The saying can be put in another way, “Free from the three realms as well as the five great elements.” One must practice properly and abstain from the three intoxications, thus one can break away from the restrains of the three realms, namely, “free from the three realms”. As the result of practice, “the five elements” contained in the material body can be changed, thus one can get free from the limitations of “the five elements”. The improvement of the five elements in the material body cannot be accomplished at one stroke; however, step-by-step practice is necessary. One must follow the teachings in Tripitaka, keep on learning, thinking and fulfilling the four unlimited hearts as well as the six paramitas, so as to fulfill the precepts, dhyana, and prajna. At least, we can assume that practice can make the structure of the body’s five elements tend to harmony and perfectness. A perfect field of five elements can resist the outside changes of five elements and avoid violent variations. That is to say, the practicer’s body cannot be restrained by the five elements; the holo-meaning is to “free from” the three realms.

    Esoteric Buddhists recite the Hymn of Bug Feeding before breakfast and lunch, “There are eighteen thousand dwellings within my body, and there are 900 million bugs in each dwelling. I accept believers’ offerings in order to sustain their lives, and will enlighten them first when I attain Buddhahood.” I, living beings and Buddha are all equal. The four unlimited hearts, “benevolence, compassion, rejoicing and freedom”, the six paramitas as well as ten thousands of good deeds, can make the coli group within our intestinal tract “equal” with the cells in the organism. We can even reckon that the bacteria have become part of the organism. The merciful identification can avoid the rejection of immune response between the bacteria and the organism, of course, except that the immune system has been disordered seriously.



    The immune system is the most important defensive system in the body, and can protect the body from the invasion of pathogenic bacteria. The system consists of immune organs (Bone marrow, thymus, spleen, lymph nodes, tonsils, peyer patches, appendix, etc.), immune cells (lymphocytes, monocytes, neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils, mast cells, platelets, etc.), and immune molecules (complement, immunoglobulin, interferon, interleukin, tumor necrosis factor and other cytokines, etc.). The immune system is the body's defensive organism to protect the body, mainly consists of lymphoid organs (thymus, lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils), the lymphoid tissues in other organs and the lymphocytes although the body, and the antigen-antibody-cells etc.; in broad sense, it also includes other white blood cells in the blood and the plasma cells and mast cells in connective tissues. Lymphocytes constitute the core of the immune system, and equip the immune system with the powers of discrimination and memory. Lymphocytes travel around the body through blood and lymph, from one lymphoid organ or lymph tissue to another, so that the scattered lymphoid organs and tissues are connected into a whole functional system. The immune system grows up through long times of evolution and battles with various disease-causing factors, in the case of individual development, the stimulation of antigens is also needed to improve the system.


    In short, the body's immune system is a general term for the overall cellular reaction of identification and elimination of "non-autologous material (usually foreign bacteria). The immune system can differentiate foreign non-autologous material composition (as small as viruses, and as big as parasites) from their own organism. One of the difficulties of differentiating foreign substances is that bacteria can get with, then generate a new form and reinfect the host (31).


    However, the outcomes of practice will certainly be different because of the individual differences, such as genetics, gender, age as well as karma of individual "soul" in the samsara. Thus it is not the case that every practicer will leave sariras or an incorruptible body. In fact, genes and “karma” are different forms of the same concept, namely, the materialized and spiritualized forms of the same factors.

     

    C. Sariras, incorruptible body, and rainbow body is the spiritualization of substance & the materialization of spirit.

     

    Our body can be roughly divided into two parts: the materialized body and spiritualized soul. The two parts are an integrated whole. However, substance or corporeal body are different from spirit or psyche. Since they’re an integrated whole, we can assume that there is a "critical state" between them.


    What is "critical state"? For example, when water freezes from liquid into solid, 0 is the critical state; when water change from liquid into steam, 100 is also a critical state. One of the characteristics of critical state is that two-phase physical and chemical properties exist at the same time.



    In the assumption, body and soul, or material and spirit can realize mutual transformation, the moment and site of transformation are the critical state between material and spirit. This critical state is not a materialized structure that can be measured, it cannot be simply understood as the bipartition of a whole, not to say a point, a line or a section, because body and soul are inseparable when the body is alive.



    The human body has two regulation systems according to modern medicine: the nervous system and endocrine system, however the traditional Chinese medicine always insist on the existence of meridian system in human body, thousands of years of medical history also proves the undoubted existence of meridian system. However, modern western scientists made the material positivism mistake when they queried the meridian theory, and concluded "Meridian is a kind of tiny crystal", which indicates they cannot prove what meridian is.



    Meridian theory: “jing” (channels) contains the meaning of “passage”, jing connects different parts of the body directly; “luo” (subsidiary channels) has the meaning of “web”, luo is the extension of jing. Jing and luo can connect the functions of different organs around the human body, and in turn connect the five internal organs (heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney), the six hollow organs (gallbladder, stomach, large intestine, small intestine, bladder and sanjiao), head, face, trunk and limbs etc., and accelerate the physiological role of the body cells with genuine Qi (intrinsic energy), thus realize vital functions and life processes. The so called “jing luo” is a generic term includes the 12 meridians, eight extra channels, branches of twelve meridians, fifteen largest collaterals as well as many other collaterals and tertiary collaterals etc.

    The role of jing luo: Jing luo circulate qi and blood, keep up the nutrition. The defensive qi running in the meridians at the body surface can safeguard human health, and resist the invasion of disease. Meridians have the functions of resisting the invasion of external virulence factors under normal circumstances. Meridians connected both inside and outside of the human body as a whole, which ensures the unity and balance of internal and external environment.



    Unobstructed qi ensures smooth meridians, and obstructed qi results in various diseases, it is an eternal truth. The circulation of qi and blood depends on the state of meridians. People who are familiar with Chinese medicine are aware that although meridians are intangible, but they really exist in human body. These days, massage and acupuncture are popular in the world; they are all based on the theory.

    In fact, meridians regulate the internal and surface organs in human body. If jing luo is smooth, then qi and blood can circulate all over the body, and supply energies to needed organs. If jing luo is obstructed, exogenous pathogenic factors can easily enter into the vital organs of human body through the surface, thus various diseases will come into being (32).


    Skeleton Map of Meridians (Figure c)

     

    Twelve channels constitute the main channels for qi-blood circulation. The fifteen large collaterals circle around the channel, and connect the yin and yang channels as well as the twelve channels in the four limbs. The eight extra channels do not belong to the vital inner organs and has no material counterpart, while they have extra functions, so they are called “the eight extra channels." Besides, the Ren channel and Governor meridian of the eight extra channels as well as the twelve channels are known as the fourteen channels.

    Each channel of the twelve channels belongs to a vital inner organ, and is named according to it as well as the tri-yin channels and tri-yang channels in the limbs. Those belong to the five internal organs constitute the yin channels, and those belong to the six hollow organs constitute the yang channels.


    Three yin channels of hand: lung channel of hand Tai Yin, heart channel of hand Shao Yin, the pericardium channel of hand Jue Yin;

    Three yang channels of hand: the large intestine channel of hand Yang Ming, the small intestine channel of hand Tai Yang; the San Jiao channel of hand Shao Yang;



    Three yin channels of foot: the spleen channel of foot Tai Yin, the kidney channel of foot Shao Yin, the liver channel of foot Jue Yin;


    Three yang channels of foot: the stomach channel of foot Yang Ming, the bladder channel of foot Tai Yang;


    Governor meridian: runs along the posterior central line. All the yang channels converge at the Governor meridian. Since the Governor meridian governs all the yang channels and yang qi in the body, it is also called the sea of yang channels.


    Ren channel: runs along the central line of thorax and abdomen. All the yin qi are converged in Ren channel. Since Ren channel conceives all the yin qi in the body, it is also called the sea of yin channels.


    In normal conditions, the function and role of meridians are regular. Inner Canon of the Yellow Emperor says, “The operation of human organism, the cause of disease and the treatment are all closely related to the twelve channels. A healer starts his study from the twelve channels, and ends up with them. ” If pathological changes happen, the twelve channels can reflect the corresponding symptoms, thus mastering the regular pattern and observing the changes can provide basis for the overall analysis of physiology, pathology, diagnosis, treatment, and so on.



    Inner Canon of the Yellow Emperor says, “Meridians can circulate qi and blood, carry yin qi and yang qi, relax muscles and bones, and limber the joints. (33)” Meridians like a net system, transport qi and blood in the whole body, and connect the vital organs, limbs, joints, muscles and bones, fleshes etc, thus the organism and organs can carry out activities as an organic whole. Qi and blood are the material basis of human life activities; they depend on jing luo’s operation to run through the whole body, nourish the vital organs, maintain the normal functions, and ensure normal physical activities. Generally speaking, meridians have the functions of circulating qi and blood, nourishing the whole body, regulating the functions of the organism and enhancing the defensive ability against exogenous pathogens.


    Hereby, we can assume that the meridian system is the critical state between the corporeal and the spiritual forms of human body. The critical state must have the characteristics of two states, in other words, the meridian system must have materialized and spiritualized performances. In fact, meridians actually have such features, thus they can regulate our corporeal body, however, and it is hard to prove their existence (the material basis).


    Three nadis and seven chakras in Yoga have similar effects. The theory of tigle (sparkle of divine consciousness), nadis and chakras originated from the ancient civilizations of India. Esoteric Buddhism is also called yoga of Tri-guhya, the practice of esoteric Buddhism has some links with yoga.


    Three nadis in human body:

    The central cannel begins from Muladhara Chakra (the end of sacrococcyx), runs along the central of the back into the head, round up to the Crown Chakra, curves toward the Brow Chakra, through which various universal energy enter into human body. The passage at the crown can be opened up through practice, thus universal energy can enter into the human body, and the spirit can rush out.


    On the part of physiological functions, the central channel locates ahead of the vertebration, and up to the head. Thus the practice of the central channel can exercise the vertbration and the brain, and enhance the functions. Brain and vertbration belong to the neural system; the brain and the spinal cord within the spine constitute the central nervous system. There are 12 pairs of cranial nerves attached on the surface of the brain. Two flanks of the spinal cord connect 31 pairs of spinal nerves, which divide into visceral nerves. The above three kinds of nerves constitute the peripheral nervous system.


    The left and right channels connect left and right nostrils, ascend to the brain and go down along the two flanks of the central channel, then join with the central channel at the Dharma-producing Chakra four fingers below the navel. The left channel is a channel of water, belong to yin, thus also is called the moon channel; the right channel is the channel of fire, belong to yang, and is also called the sun channel.

    The left and right channels locate beside the central channel, and correspond with the two visceral nerves, namely, sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves.


    The three channels regulate the whole nervous system of the body. The function of body system can be enhanced through yoga practice.

    Seven chakras: The following chakras are listed from bottom to top:

    1Moodadhara Chakra

    2Swadisthan Chakra

    3Nabhi or Manipura Chakra 3a Void or Ocean of Illusion

    4Heart or Anahata Chakra

    5Vishuddhi Chakra

    6Agnya or Ajna Chakra

    7Sahasrara Chakra) 34

    (Figure d)


     

    Although the three channels and seven chrakas have not been proved by modern medical science, we can still assume them as a critical state between material and spirit similar to meridians.


    If we assume meridians or the three channels and seven chrakas in yoga constitute the critical state between human body and spirit, then we can come to a conclusion: Although we cannot prove the material basis of their existence at laboratory, in fact they actually play a wonderful regulating role in human body, then we can conclude that our mind can change the material body. If the assumption is correct in theory, then we can easily understand the visualization of the holy one in yoga of Tri-guhya. Through the practice of visualizing the holy one’s perfect appearance, the body will gradually accords with the holy one due to the function of spiritual energies.


     

    D. Practice properly in the light of precepts can generate “spiritual information field” as well as materialized actions, which can ensure healthy body, and continuously prevent the body from being decomposed by the coli group even after the end of life, or transform the body into siriras during cremation, or cause the phenomena of Light Samadhi.

     

    Spiritual energy is different from material energy, and has spiritual properties, although it is hard to be tested by physical means, spiritual energy is closely linked with our minds. Ideas fall into two categories, positive ones and negative ones. The spiritual energy field formed by positive ideas is also positive, and can improve the physique. While negative ideas can form negative energy field, and weaken the physique. Since the essence of Buddhist practice is positive ideas and actions, such as benevolence, compassion, rejoicing and freedom, thus the spiritual energy field is positive and can improve the physique and health, this is also the holo-meaning of “Buddhas and Bodhisattvas’s blessing”.

     

    . The Significance of Divine Powers in Buddhist Practice & the Assumptions of Modern Science and Philosophy


    A. Questions

    Buddhist or Esoteric Buddhist theory is a perfect combination of materialism and idealism. We learn from scriptures and Buddhist practice that divine powers include divine eye, divine ear, awareness of other’s thoughts, knowledge of existences in all times, divine feet and the divine power of no affliction. What kind of powers are they actually? If divine powers are considered as incredible phenomena, then it is hard to explain various experiences in esoteric Buddhist practicing. We’ll fall into the mire of agnosticism. Are divine powers our intrinsic potentials? Can we explain them with the cell theory and genetic theories in modern medical science


     

    B. Explanations in Buddhist Scriptures

    The Large Sutra on PrajnaparamitaVol.9, the First Part, Reincarnation 3/4,Taisho, says, Shariputra, when a bodhisattva is practicing prajnaparamita, he can arouse the six divine paramitas, namely, wisdom of divine feet, wisdom of divine ear, awareness of other’s thoughts, knowledge of existences in all times, wisdom of divine eye and the divine power of no affliction (35).”


    The context is very clear that a bodhisattva may arouse the six divine powers when he practices paramitas, hence six divine powers are the result of six paramitas. The six divine powers are divine feet, divine ear, awareness of other’s thoughts, knowledge of existences in all times, divine eye and the divine power of no affliction. The six paramitas are easy to say but not easy to practice, that is, Dona (giving), Sila (precepts), Ksanti (patience), Virya (perseverance), Dhyana (concentration), Prajna (wisdom). Actually how many of us can live up to? However, if exoteric or esoteric Buddhists cannot live up to the six paramitas, then attaining Buddhahood is just gabs. The six paramitas must be rooted in our minds, speeches, actions at anywhere in any times. If a Buddhist cannot follow precepts and practice properly, he is only a “speaker” of Buddhism.


     

    C. The Holo-meaning of Six Paramitas from the Outlook of Modern Science and Philosophy

        It is necessary to be familiar with modern astrophysics and quantum physics.

    Big Bang Theory is a theory about the origin of the universe in astrophysics. According to the Big Bang theory, the universe evolved from the state of high temperature and density about 14 billion years ago. The temperature and density of the universe’s substances and energy are extremely high at beginning. Physicists have various opinions on what happened before, while in the general theory of relativity, there is a gravitational singularity.


    In the narrow sense, “Big Bang” refers to the violent change when the universe is forming at the beginning, and the period is calculated as about 13.7 billion years ago; however, in the broad sense, it refers to the popular theory that reveals the origin and expansion of the cosmos. According to this theory, the former Soviet physicist George•Gamow predicted the existence of cosmic microwave background radiation in 1948. At the sixties of last century, the radiation was detected, which strongly supports the big bang theory.

    Thus "singularity" theory and "black hole" theory were also developed. In short, the so-called "singularity" is a “point” with infinite quality and infinitesimal volume, the universe is the result of the singularity’s constant expansion; while the "black hole" is constantly absorbing stars, and then evolves into new "singularity." In fact, it is similar to the theory of “the beginning is the reverse of ending” in traditional Chinese Taoist philosophy, the universe originates from nil, and nil evolves into materials, and materials again returns to nil (my personal opinion). “Yin” and “yang” in Taoism and Confucianism actually refer to “materiality” and “immateriality”.


    Appended Commentaries to the Book of Change, Part, Lofty heaven and the low earth form the universe. The higher one and the lower one stay where they are, thus the order comes into being. The movement and stillness have regular patterns; the weak and strong are differentiated. Those of similar attributions congregate in groups, thus good or ill luck are divided. Various phases in the heaven and different landforms on the earth emerge, thus changes appear. Therefore, the weak and strong clash, and Eight Diagrams vary in different forms. A thunderbolt flashed, accompanied by wind and rain. The sun and the moon are moving, thus heat and cold weather alternate. Masculinity creates man, while femininity shapes woman. Yang qi starts the process of creation, while yin qi nurtures everything.” (36) From the view of holo-science and holo-philosophy, the above paragraph analyzes the complementary dialectical relationship between “materiality and immateriality”, “yin and yang” or “material and spirit”.


    Big Bang theory has been generally accepted, although there are many new problems in "singularity" and "black hole" theories, for example, the famous British physicist Stephen William Hawking has different assumptions, but these will not affect the study in this article.

    However, modern science emphasizes the material positivism research, and neglects the "spiritual" research, which is the limitation of modern science and philosophy. In the same way, modern Buddhist study is also led to a branch road similar to those of archaeological literature. Tao Te Ching, a traditional Taoist classic, the 47th chapter goes like this, “Without going outside his door, one understands (all that takes place) under the sky; without looking out from his window, one sees the Tao of Heaven. The farther that one goes out (from himself), the less he knows. Therefore the sages got their knowledge without travelling; knew everything without seeing them; and accomplished their ends without any purpose of doing so.” (37) The substance of the chapter can be explained simply like this, “A scholar knew everything under the sky without going outside his door.” Modern Buddhist positivism researches have misled Buddhism from practicing way to Bodhi into one subject. Such researches can only immerse us in the sea of knowledge, and the disadvantages outweigh the advantages as far as wisdom development is concerned, and has no benefit to Buddhist practice. So Buddhists with right faith will not follow such researches, furthermore, some of the speeches and views are not different from slandering the Three Jewels.


    Eastern and western philosophies can be generally divided into two schools: materialism and idealism. Basic philosophies fall into “the material” and “the spiritual”, while the main difference lies in which one is first, decisive factor. In materialism, material is the first, and spirit, the second, materials generate and determine spirits; while in idealism, spirit is the first, and material, the second, spirits create and determine materials. In fact, they are both imperfect, and the best should be the perfect combination of the two. In fact, Buddhism is the real perfect combination of the two theories.


    Diamond Sutra says, “World Honored One, the three thousand great thousand world systems are spoken of by the Tathagata as no world systems, therefore they are called world systems. And why? If world systems actually existed, that would constitute a unity of appearances. What the Tathagata speaks of as a unity of appearances is not a unity of appearances. Therefore it is called a unity of appearances." (38) (39)

    Here the so-called “unity of appearances “can be understood as the unity of "material" and "spirit". In other words, "material" and "spirit" with different appearances derive from the same origin. In simple words, material is spirit, and spirit is material, material can be change into spirit, and vice versa. For example, if we remove the object before us, what is the space where the object occupied a moment ago? At least in theory we can say that it is the object’s insubstantial body, or “spirit” of the object, however, in fact, nothing exists there after the object was moved (except air). That is to say, when an object is moved, the insubstantial body is moved simultaneously, in other words, material and spirit move together, they’re a unity of appearance. Materialists only see material, while idealists only see spirit; both of them are biased, their cognition of the world are just like a blind man feels an elephant. The inexplicable unity of appearance is the world outlook of Buddhism. Another important connotation of Buddhist world view is "three thousand worlds" is "a dust mote", "a dust mote" is "three thousand worlds". Therefore, the dharma realm exists in the heart, those beyond the body are the appearance, and those within the heart are the nature. The appearance and the nature is a united whole, they are the same for an enlightened person, but different for a bewildered person.  Provided that the "big bang" and the singularity theory are acceptable, then the universe can be seen as constantly circulating from “Singularity” into “black hole”, and then from “black hole” into “Singularity” in the long course of history. Thus there is no beginning or ending of the universe, which resembles the problem of chicken and egg’s sequence. There are no first and last, but they appear in an order. Are there straight line and flat surface in the universe? Suppose the “big bang” of the universe formed 10n of small particles (here n is infinity), the particles are still with us now through the universe’s evolution, and constitute myriad phenomena in the boundless universe. If we have kept track of the 10n of elementary particles continuously since the beginning of the universe, then it is quite reasonable in theory to conclude the entire history of any other particles as well as the whole universe based on the data of any particle, thus we can also explain why “a dust mote” can contain “the three thousand great thousand world systems”, and “the three thousand great thousand world systems” can be enveloped in “a dust mote”. Thus we can conclude that “knowledge of other’s thoughts” is understandable and believable.


    The philosophical relationship between material and spirit is mentioned above. Here material can be seen as the corporeal body obtained from our parents, and the spirit is our "soul". In other words, the relationship between material and spirit can be simplified as the relationship between body and soul. Materials follow the law of conservation of matter, emerge and disappear, transform and change; while the soul reincarnates in the six realms of existence until one realizes and frees from the samsara. Most of modernists don’t believe the existence of samsara because of the impact of modern science and technology. However, spirits are wandering again and again in the six destinies of celestial beings, human, asura, hell beings, hungry ghosts and animals as a result of various karmas.

     

    D. Assumptions for Six Divine Powers from the View of Modern Science and Philosophy


    The Power of Divine Feet: The ability of arriving at anywhere or by means of avatars.


    The power of divine feet is actually the ability of creating avatars. Many Buddhist scriptures record Buddhas and bodhisattvas could create millions of avatars, for example, Wonderful Dharma Lotus Sutra, the Chapter of the Universal Door of Avalokitesvara Bodhisattva, descripts various avatars of Avalokitesvara Bodhisattva (Gwan Shr Yin):

    The Buddha told Bodhisattva Infinite Resolve, "Good man, if there is a living being in some country who can be enlightened by a Buddha, Gwan Shr Yin Bodhisattva appears as a Buddha and teaches him the Dharma. If someone can be enlightened by a Pratyeka Buddha, he appears as a Pratyeka Buddha and teaches him the Dharma. If someone can be enlightened by a Dharma-listener, he appears as a Dharma-listener and teaches him the Dharma. If someone can be enlightened by a Brahma-heaven King, he appears as a Brahma-heaven King and teaches him the Dharma.


    If someone can be enlightened by Shakra, he appears as Shakra and teaches him the Dharma. If someone can be enlightened by an isvara, he appears as an isvara and teaches him the Dharma. If someone can be enlightened by Mahesvara, he appears as Mahesvara and teaches him the Dharma. If someone can be enlightened by a mighty General of the Gods, he appears as a mighty General of the Gods and teaches him the Dharma. If someone can be enlightened by the God Vaisravana, he appears as Vaisravana and teaches him the Dharma.


    If someone can be enlightened by a minor king, he appears as a minor king and teaches him the Dharma. If someone can be enlightened by an elder, he appears as an elder and teaches him the Dharma. If someone can be enlightened by a lay-person, he appears as a lay-person and teaches him the Dharma. If someone can be enlightened by a minister of state, he appears as a minister of state and teaches him the Dharma.

    If someone can be enlightened by a Brahman, he appears as a Brahman and teaches him the Dharma. If someone can be enlightened by a monk or nun, a layman or a laywoman, he appears as a monk or nun, a layman or laywoman and teaches him the Dharma. If someone can be enlightened by the wife of an elder, layman, minister of state, or Brahman, he appears as a wife and teaches him the Dharma.


    If someone can be enlightened by a lad or maiden, he appears as a lad or maiden and teaches him the Dharma. If someone can be enlightened by a god, dragon, yaksha, or gandharva, an asura, garuda, kinnara, or mahoraga, a human, nonhuman, and so forth, he appears accordingly and teaches him the Dharma. And if someone can be enlightened by a Vajra-wielding Spirit, he appears as a Vajra-wielding Spirit and teaches him the Dharma.


    Infinite Resolve! Such are the meritorious deeds done by Gwan Shr Yin, the Bodhisattva who roams throughout the world and appears in various forms to rescue living beings. Therefore you should all wholeheartedly make offerings to the Bodhisattva who listens to the sounds of all the worlds. In times of terror, crisis, and trouble, the Great Bodhisattva Gwan Shr Yin can bestow courage and dispel all fears. Therefore, all throughout the Saha world we call him Giver of Courage. (40)


    Here we can view the avatars of Bodhisattva as transformations or duplicates. The so called transformations are different appearances of the Bodhisattva, while duplicates are bodies duplicate from the original body. The appearances in our childhood, teenage, middle age, and old age can be considered as our transformations; if we can change our appearances into those of others, these are also transformations; if one body creates many new bodies, these new ones are duplicates. In fact one person has only one body, why the Buddha can have many transformations and duplicates? “Immeasurable meritorious deeds” is imperative to attain the ability according to Buddhist sutras, from here we see the importance of practice. “Samsara” is a very important concept in Buddhism, if it really exists, then we in the past, the present and the future are our transformations. Similarly, in the yoga of Tri-guhya, the holy one can be reckoned as the transformation of the esoteric Buddhist practicer. The theory of Duplication will be elaborated later. If we can explain the transformation of our own body theoretically, then we can be in any places at any times in theory. However, if we want to attain the power of divine feet, we must develop all the potentials of each cell. It is not a thing of mere paper talk. In exoteric Buddhism, one can accomplish the practice through ceaseless effort in three great kalpas; in esoteric Buddhism, one can attain Buddhahood during lifetime, but one must practice yoga of Tri-guhya strictly according to the precepts. Modernists who have accepted western philosophy and science reckon divine powers as fabrications, even less people can practice properly. However, the historical records of Buddhism and scriptures tell us human beings can attain divine powers.


    For example, The Biography of Divine Monks, vol.3, records:


    Monk Beidu, no one knew his real name, he often ferried rivers with a wooden tub, thus people knew him. At first, he lived at Jizhou and wasn’t strict with minute precepts, no one knew his remarkable divine powers……After some time, he roamed here and there; he accepted someone’s invitations but rejected someone else.


    At that time, he lived in a well-off Chen family at Nanzhou, and received warm treats. It was said that there was another Beidu at Duxia, the Chen father and his four sons didn’t believe, so they went to Duxia together. There was really a Beidu who looked just like Beidu at their home. They offered him a box of sweet ginger, a knife, pistacia lentiscus, hand towels and so on, then Beidu ate the sweet ginger but left other things before his knees. They were afraid that he was Beidu at their home, so two sons stayed at Duxia to watch the man, the other three returned home. Beidu at home was there with incense and knife and so on before his knees too, but he didn’t eating sweet ginger. He said to Chen, “The knife is blunt; I can sharpen it for you.” When the two sons returned from Duxia, they said, that Beidu had go to the Lingju Temple. The Beidu at home unexpectedly demanded two pieces of yellow paper, and wrote something unlike characters. The characters on one paper were the same with those on the back of another paper. Chen asked him, “What is the symbol?” Beidu didn’t answer.…Later, it was said that he was beheld at times. (41)


    The Power of Divine Eye: The capability of discerning things clearly both far and near.


    As we all know, human eyes have limitations, for example, infrared and ultraviolet rays are beyond human eyesight. However, with modern scientific instruments, we can see infrared and ultraviolet rays; with radio astronomy telescope, we can know far away stars, which prove divine eye is reasonable in theory. However, most of us think we must make use of scientific instruments. May divine eye in Buddhism come into reality? Maybe only Buddhas or bodhisattvas can answer the question, yet Buddhas and bodhisattvas once practiced as human beings, thus human beings have the potential to answer the question theoretically. Here the divine eye can see not only the material universe, but also “the spiritual universe”, namely, the ten dharma realms. In other words, the divine eye should also see "the spiritual universe", so it must have the vision of consciousness. If limitation of human vision is 10 km, we must stand at the place 10 km away from the objective 20 km away from us, but if we really stand at the place, then there is no divine eye at all. There is only one condition that our consciousness put our vision at the place. Since the power of consciousness is spiritual power, if we have the power of divine feet, then we have the power of divine eye naturally. Actually all the answers are hidden within our body and soul. As the holo-meanings of the ten dharma realms are hidden in our own heart, the power of divine eye is a kind of spiritual ability.


    The achievements of modern molecular genetics tell us, our bodies have numerous cells, each cell can clone a new individual in theory, thus numerous new individuals can be cloned, and the new individuals can clone numerous new ones again. This is the material basis of the theoretical assumptions for divine eye and ears.


    Let us continue to assume that the universe is a holo-information system, the so-called holo-information means we can get the information of all things form one thing, or learn the whole from the part. ECIWO Biology dates back to the theory published by Professor Zhang Yingqing at Shandong University, China in 1973. In simple words, some parts of the body or organism with independent functions and structure can reflect all the information of the human body. (42)  For example, we can learn the whole tree by a single leave, learn the whole human body by one finger, or infer the whole living organism by one cell. In the same way, we can infer the earth by a dust mote, infer the whole solar system though the earth, and infer the whole Milky Way galaxy through the solar system. Inferring is a process of thinking or the action of the mind. Suppose the universe of holo-information is real, then human mind can learn the whole cosmos, in other words, human eye can see the whole universe, and human ears can hear the whole sounds in the universe. In fact, the famous ancient Chinese classic, Book of Changes, is a work of philosophy and science analyzing the holo-information universe. The views in the book as well as the philosophical and scientific thoughts in Lao Tzu's Tao Te Ching, a classic of Taoism, are completely contained in Buddhist holo-information ideas.


    The Sutra of the Secret Whole Bodies’ Relics Casket Seal Dharani of All Buddhas’ hearts goes like this:


    The Buddha said: “Listen, Vajrapani. If there are faithful men or faithful ladies and the four groups of disciples of mine in the future make a wish and then write this Sutra, it is equal to write all Sutras spoken by ninety nine hundred thousand kotis Buddhas. They have planted the roots of goodness in front of ninety nine hundred thousand kotis Buddhas. All the Buddhas take care of them just like protecting their eyes, or like a mercy mother taking care of her children. If anybody read this sutra, it is equal to reading all sutras spoken by all Buddhas from the past, the present and the future.” Moreover, The Buddha told Vajrapani: “If anybody writes this Sutra and put it into a stupa. It will be a stupa of all Buddhas’ Varjra Store. It is also a stupa of all Buddhas’ Dharani Heart Secrete Blessing. It is a stupa of ninety nine hundred thousand kotis Buddhas. It is also a stupa of all Buddhas’ tops and eyes. It will be protected by all Buddhas’ spiritual power.” (43)


    This passage of the scripture tells the holo-information character of Buddhist truth. The capability of reciting the Tripitaka is not equal with the experience and understanding of Buddhist dharma, indulging in the texts is even farther from the Dharma. There is a saying of Kobo Daishi, “Buddhist dharma is not far away if we cherish the Dharma in our heart; bhuta-tathata is not beyond us, how can we find it outside the body? (44)” If someone considers himself a Buddhist master when he has read a few scriptures, and studied the history of Buddhism.


    The most basic laws of physics is the law of conservation of matter and the law of conservation of energy, which are also similar to Buddhist outlook of material, the only difference is, in Buddhism, material and spirit can transform into each other, thus there are some questions about the two basic laws: If a matter transforms into spirit, then how can the matter keep conservation? If material energy transform into spiritual energy, then how can the energy keep conservation? From the basic view of philosophy, the relationship between material and spirit is mutual dependence for existence and mutual transformation, so Buddhist research cannot be carried out in the way of historical research, it is necessary to research the “spirit”, and should study not only the biological aspect, but also the spiritual aspect, in other words, we must study the essence of human spirit. According to the conservation law, if we consider from the outlook of holo-information, all the matters and spirits in the universe must keep conservation, all the souls circulating in the six destinies should follow the law too. Since the material universe is a system of holo-information, then the spiritual universe must be a system of holo-information too, in other words, we can infer all the souls in the universe according to a single soul. A soul is the spiritual “body” corresponding to the relative corporeal body. Similarly, modern science must contain spiritual content so as to perfect the theory.


    The Power of Divine Ears: the ability to differentiate all the sounds and speeches in the material and spiritual worlds.


    The theoretical assumption is the same with divine eye.


    Awareness of other’s thoughts: the ability to learn other’s thoughts in mind.


    We still analyze with the theory of holo-information and the Big Bang theory. Provided that all things in the universe began in the big bang, at the beginning of the big bang all the material components were produced by the explosion, we assume that we follow the tracks of all the material components, then in the long course of history, we can know the movement tracks and changes of all the matters in the universe through the observed data. Similarly, there are one hundred and three kinds of basic elements in the universe already known to us, more new elements will be found with the development of science and technology. The basic and largest elements that constitute vital bodies are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. As far as human beings are concerned, the constituent elements are basically identical, and these basic elements were generated spontaneously by the Big Bang. So it is possible to infer the historical data of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen in all the others’ organisms according to all the data of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen in my body in the long history. In this way, I can infer any other individual at the other side of the earth although we don’t know each other. This is the theoretical basis of awareness of other’s thoughts in materials science. After all, human beings have souls, if we can infer all the information of other souls according to the holo-information data of one soul, then we can know all the spiritual movement of all the other human beings. It is the same with all the other living beings.


    Knowledge of Existences in All Times: the ability to know the existences of oneself, other people and other living creatures in the past, the present and the future.


    Knowledge of existences in all times is to reappear and appear all the movement information of the spirits as well as the corresponding historical environments in one’s mind. The essence is the holo-information character of spiritual information.


    The Divine Power of No Affliction: the ability to extinguish all the afflictions and accomplish one’s practice.


    Here we must introduce the new concept of “absorption.”  Absorption has the meaning of intake, ingestion and digestion literally. Here “absorption” refers to absorb materials as well as spiritual energy. Five Confessions of the Vajra World and Nine Expedient Methods of the Garbha World are both exchanges of spiritual energy as well as the interplay between the spiritual energies of the practicer and the Buddha. If we are pleased as the result of being praised, this is because praises contain positive agreeable spiritual energies. Similarly, conversion, confession, appeal, rejoicing in other’s good, sharing and so on can be all assumed as exchanges of spiritual energies.


    Buddhas and bodhisattvas are spiritual holo-unities of appearances. When a practicer makes offerings to Buddhas or Bodhisattvas, the offerings are spiritual energies, Buddhas or Bodhisattvas’s acceptance of the offerings is called “absorption”. We have discussed matters and spirits can change into each other in the above passage, if we can absorb spiritual energies, then the energies can transform into material energies. Refraining from eating grain is an important Taoist practice that is to refrain from eating for several days and sustain the normal function of the organism. The flowers, incense, lamps and paste incense on the altar are not used just to show our piety, it is more important to exchange information energies with the Buddha’s spirit.


    The divine power of no affliction is to extinguish all the afflictions, in short, to stop metabolism. If we can absorb spiritual energies, then metabolism is unnecessary.

     

    E. Examples of Divine Powers:

    (1) Kumarajiva was a famous Buddhist translator in the history. The Biography of Divine Monks, Vol. 2, Taisho, records:

    Before long, Kumarajiva felt out of sorts, and recited a dharani for three times and ordered foreign disciples to recite the dharani. However the disease went worse before the dharani took effects. So he bade farewell to the monks, ‘We meet each other because of the Dharma, I’m sorry that I haven’t made all my efforts in this life, maybe we will meet again later. I’ve translated Buddhist sutras regardless of my ignorance. The translated scriptures exceed 300 volumes, only Ten Recitations Vinaya has not been edited in terse language. Mistakes can be avoided if the real meaning is kept. I hope the translated sutras can be passed on to the posterities and disseminated widely. Now I make a sincere vow before all of you, if there are no mistakes in my translation, my tongue shall not be burned after cremation.’ He died at Chan’an on Aug 20th, the 11th year of Hongshi period. It was the 5th year of Yixi period in the Jin Dynasty. Then his body was cremated according to Buddhist stipulation, his body was burned into ashes when the wood fire went out, only his tongue was intact. ” (45)


     Master Kumarajiva made a vow before he entered into nirvana, if there were no mistakes in the translated scriptures, his tongue will be incorruptible after cremation. And it was the fact actually.

     

    (2) Vajrabodhi

    The Biography of Divine Monks, Vol. 7, Taisho, records:

    (Vajrabodhi arrived at Guangzhou during the Kaiyuan period, and then accompanied the emperor to Luoyang. There were no rains from January to May in that year although people prayed to Spirits of great mountains and rivers. The emperor ordered him to build an altar and pray for rain. He used the dharma of Amoghankusa Bodhisattva (Guanyin of the Unerring Hook), and painted a portrait of the bodhisattva, he said it must rain within one day after the ceremony of 'opening the eyes' of the image. The emperor ordered Chan master Yi Xing to wait on closely and cautiously. It was cloudless until the seventh day. Northwest wind was rising as soon as the Open Eyes ceremony, the wind blew away the tiles, uprooted the trees and tore up the clouds; storm poured down ceaselessly, people far and near was frightened. The heavy rain penetrated the roof and the place of Buddhist rite was flooded. In the next morning people in the capital all said that Master Vajrabodhi got a dragon, the dragon pierced through the roof and flied off. Each day, there were thousands of people who hoped to visit the place.”

    The emperor was very fond of his 25th princess, who got a disease for a long time and couldn’t be cured. So she was moved to the Xianyi Villa, and she couldn’t speak with eyes closed for more than ten days. The emperor ordered Vajrabodhi to impart precepts to the princess since he was afraid that she was on the verge of death. Vajrabodhi asked to choose two seven-year-old girls, and told them to lie down on the ground with dark red silk wrapped on their faces. Then he told Fairchild Niu to write a paper and burn the paper at another place. Vajrabodhi told the dharani, the two girls recited completely. Then he entered into Samadhi, and ordered the two girls to carry the edict to Yamaraja. After a while, Yamaraja ordered the princess’s dead nurse to protect her. They followed the two girls and returned. The princess then sat up and spoke as normal. The emperor couldn’t wait for the guards and rode to the villa. The princess said, ‘The destiny cannot be changed, now I’m sent back to see Your Majesty for a moment.’ After half of a day, she passed away again. From then on, the emperor began to worship Vajrabodhi.”


    Vajrabodhi told his disciples at Luoyang Guangfu Temple in the beginning of the lunar August, the 20th year (Ren Yin) of Kaiyuan period, ‘I will leave you when the moon is full.’ Then he moved around Vairochana Buddha for seven times and returned to his own house, burning incense and praying. He held Buddhist sutras and the newly translated scriptures above his head, told his testament and then entered into nirvana.” (46)


    (3) Subhakarasimha

    Master Subhakarasimha drunk and ate meat, his speech and behavior were careless. He often clamored noisily, messed up the feast when he was intoxicated. The vinaya master Dao Xuan couldn’t put up with him. One midnight, Dao Xuan seized a louse and was going to throw it onto the ground. Master was half drunk and cried out, ‘Vinaya master, vinaya master will throw a Buddhist disciple into death.’ The vinaya master then knew he was an unusual person; he adjusted his clothes and make obeisance to him, and respected Master Subhakarasimha as his master.”

    An ugly serpent was over tens of meters long at Luoyang, wriggled at the foot of the mountain, many people saw it. Master said, ‘the serpent wants to flood the city.’ He preached Buddhist teachings to the serpent. The serpent arrived with wind and dews at night, and looked like listening. Master reproached it, ‘You’re a serpent, and should live in the mountain, why you came here? Do you want to hurt people with your poison? Leave here and don’t hurt any people.’ The serpent felt ashamed, then lied down and died.”


    Drought was continuing to plague on July, the tenth year of Kaiyuan period, the emperor sent a herald and ordered master to pray for rain. Master held a bowl of water, and stirred with a knife, he recited the dharani for several times. Then a small dragon like a tadpole raised its head out of the water. Master dispatched the dragon in dharani, and then a white air rose from the bowl. He told the herald, ‘Hurry up and go back! It is going to rain.’ The herald galloped out, in a moment, wind was rising and thunderbolt flashed. When the herald went back to the palace, his clothes were all drenched. The heavy rain continued for a whole day. Another time, it was raining ceaselessly, the emperor ordered Master to stop it. Master made up five clay old women and scolded them with Sanskrit, and then it cleared up immediately.” (47)

     

    (4) Yi Xing

    The Biography of Divine Monks, Vol. 7, Taisho, records:

    Yi Xing travelled thousands of miles to look for teachers in order to study calendar. Once he arrived at the Guoqing Temple at Tiantai Mountain, where he saw a yard with tens of ancient pine trees, and a stream flew in front of the temple’s gate. Yi Xing stood at the screen door, heard a monk calculating in the yard. After a moment, the monk told his disciples, ‘Today a disciple will come and ask for my algorithm. He ought to arrive at the door now, there is no one guiding him here?’ Then he calculated again, and said, ‘When the stream flows toward the west, the disciple will come.’ Yi Xing heard his words and came in. He bowed his heads to the monk and asked him to teach him the algorithm. Then the stream flowed toward the east again. From then on, Yi Xings name was well known far and near.”


    When Yi Xing was a child, his family was poor. His neighbor Grandma Wang gave his family money over tens of thousands. Yi Xing wanted to pay back. During the Kaiyuan period, Yi Xing was respected by Emperor Xuanzong, and his advices were always adopted by the emperor. Later, Grandma Wang’s son killed someone and was prisoned. Grandma Wang came to Yi Xing and asked for his help. Yi Xing answered, ‘If Grandma needs money, I can give you ten times of reward. But I cannot ask his Majesty to bend the law.’ Grandma stood with arms akimbo, and swore like a pirate, ‘It is no use to be acquainted with this monk!’ Yi Xing followed her and made an apology, while Grandma left and didn’t look back.

    Yi Xing thought of the hundreds of workers at Huntian Temple. He ordered the workers to empty a room, and move in a vat. He chose two long-term workers secretly, gave them bags and said, ‘In some place there is a deserted garden, and you must hide there from noon to dusk, and something will come at that time. The number is seven; you must capture all of them. If you lost any of them, I’ll flog you with stick.’ The workers went to the garden and waited. A group of pigs arrived at dusk; they captured all of them and carried them back. Yi Xing was glad, and ordered to place the pigs into the vat, and closed the vat with a wooden cover. Then he sealed the cover with mud, and wrote dozens of Sanskrit characters with a red brush. The workers didn’t know why he did so. On the morning, a court eunuch knocked at his door and said the emperor called him to come to the palace as soon as possible. When he arrived at the informal palace hall, the emperor greeted him and asked, ‘Taishi (the court official in charge of astronomy) told me, the Big Dipper disappeared last night. What is the sign? Master, have you any method to prevent it? ’ Yi Xing answered, ‘The Mars disappeared at the latter Wei Dynasty, and the star of Diche still cannot be seen even to nowadays. The unprecedented sign is the warning of Heaven. If ordinary people live like fish out of water, then frosts and drought will appear, while great virtues can dispel them, and the most affecting benevolence was to bury the dead, and release the condemned. Hatred can destroy all the merits, and benevolent can subdue all devils. In my opinion, it is best to decree an amnesty. The emperor adopted his advice. At night, Taishi reported, one of the seven stars of the Big Dipper appeared, and after seven days, all the seven stars appeared again.” (48)

     

    (5) Amoghavajra

    The Biography of Divine Monks, Vol. 8, Taisho, records:

    When Amghavajra arrived at Simhala, the king sent envoys to meet them and made abundant offerings. One day the king tamed elephants, all the people ascend heights to watch in distance, no one can draw near. Amoghavajra recited dharani, made a mudra with his hands, and stood in the middle of the street in the Samadhi of Benevolence. Several wild elephants ran to him, then all stopped and calmed down when they were nearing Amoghavajra. The whole kingdom was surprised.”


    He came back to the Capital on the fifth year of Tianbao period. The blazing sun was always shining in the summer of that year. So the emperor ordered him to pray for rain, and stipulated, ‘The rain cannot exceed the scheduled time and cannot be a storm.’ Amghavajra asked to build the altar of Subramanya. Moderate rain fell down within three days. The emperor was very pleased.


    Another time, it didn’t rain from spring to summer. The emperor ordered him to pray for rain, and said, ‘It is Master’s dharma power if it will rain within three days; it is not Master’s dharma power if it will rain after three days.’ Amghavajra accepted the requirement and built an altar. On the second day, it was pouring down and relieved the drought. Another year, it was arid again. Yin Xiaoxin, the prefectural magistrate of the Capital visited the temple and asked him to pray for rain. Amoghavajra ordered his disciples to fetch a one-foot-long birch bark, and then drew a small dragon on it. He placed an incense burner and a bowl of water before the dragon. He ordered the dragon in dharani. Half an hour later, he gave the dragon to Xiaoxin and said, ‘You can throw it into the Qu River, and must come back soon, or you’ll catch the rain.’ Xiaoxin threw the dragon into the river, then a one-foot-long white dragon rose from the river, and grew into several meters long like a white ribbon. Suddenly, the dragon flied to the sky. Xiaoxin whipped the horse and galloped for no more than ten paces, heavy clouds were rolling and storm was pouring down. Water in the canal had breached the bank when he arrived at Yongchongli.”


    During the Yongtai period, Amoghavajra washed himself with scented water, and lied toward the easthe watched and saluted towards the northern court, and made the Mahavairocanas dharma realm mudra, then entered into nirvana. Hundreds of sariras were collected after cremation. His cranium was not burned and a sarira was half concealed within it. The emperor made an edict to build a pagoda to enshrine the holy relics.” (49)


    There are too many examples of divine powers in Buddhist sutras and Buddhist records. From the above examples, we can see that Buddhist practice can reveal divine powers.


    Exoteric and esoteric Buddhism all belong to the system of truth, many ideas in modern science also are truths. Truth can be explained by truth, in other words, Buddhist dharma should be explained by the widely accepted theories in modern science and philosophy. The traditional way to illuminate Buddhist sutra is to illustrate one sutra with other sutras. Although it is right, today we live in a society with highly developed science, we must let more people learn the holo-information character of Buddhist dharma, thus the traditional method is not enough to convince people. If things go on like this, Buddhism will degenerate into sheer discourses, which will lead to an ignorant religion without reason. Of course, Buddhism is a philosophic and scientific system of practice; without practice, we’re only engage in idle theorizing. Many modern Buddhist researches have grown into empty talks. Buddhist researchers indulge in verbiage all day, which has no benefit to Buddhist practice.

    Then Buddhist scriptures how to explain divine powers?


    The Large Sutra on PrajnaparamitaVol.3, the First Part, Learn Vipassana 1/2,Taisho, says:


    If a bodhisattva wants to bring peace to all the sentient beings in Buddhist worlds as many as the number of sands in the Ganges River in the ten directions, and let them learn the four dnyana s, four formless concentrations, and attain the five divine powers, he must study prajnaparamita.”


    Furthermore, Sariputra, if a Bodhisattva practice prajnaparamita and really knows such donation can attain great rewards, then it is called real knowledge. Such donation results in reincarnation in great family of Ksatriya, Brahman, venerable elder and layman, such donation results in reincarnation in the heavens of the four heavenly kings, or the thirty-three celestials, or the Yama, or the Tusita, or the Sunirmita, or in the heaven where one can partake of the pleasures created in other heavens. He may attain the first dhyana, or the second dhyana, or the third dhyana, or the forth dhyana because of such donation. He can attain the meditation of infinite space, or the meditation of infinite consciousness, or the meditation of realm of nothingness, or meditation of neither perception nor non-perception because of such donation. He can attain bodhipakkhiya dhamma, the three gates of liberation, or the eight kinds of liberation, or the eight extraordinary stages, or the Samadhi of the nine degrees, or ten totally pervasive concentrations because of the donation. Owing to the donation, he can enter the dharma gate of dharani or Samadhi. Owing to the donation, he can enter the pure nature of bodhisattva and be free from samsara. Owing to the donation he can reach the stage of joy, or the stage of freedom from defilement, or the stage of lightening, or the stage of flaming wisdom, or the stage of invincible, or the stage of visible wisdom, or the stage of far-reaching, or the stage of immovability, or the stage of excellent wisdom, or the stage of dharma clouds. Owing to the donation, he can attain the ten powers of a Buddha, or the four forms of fearlessness, or the four unimpeded understandings, or the eighteen distinctive characteristics of the Buddha, or great compassion, great mercy, great joy and great freedom. Owing to the donation, he can have the thirty two marks of a great personage, or eighty minor marks. Owing to the donation, he can attain the dharma of no forgetfulness, or always abide in freedom. Owing to the donation, he can attain the wisdom of omniscience, or the wisdom of dharma character, or the omniscient mind. Owing to the donation, he can consummate the stage of entering the holy class, or the stage of once-returner, or the stage of non-returner, or the stage of Arhatship, or the stage of Pacceka Buddha, or the supreme unsurpassed perfect enlightenment. If a bodhisattva really knows such precepts, patience, perseverance, dhyana and prajna, he can attain great rewards in the same way.”


    If a bodhisattva wants to have the five eyes, namely, the earthly vision, the divine vision, the wisdom eye, the dharma eye and the Buddha-eye, he must learn Prajna Paramita. Furthermore, Sariputra, if a bodhisattva wants to see Buddhas as many as the number of sands in the Ganges River in the ten directions with the divine eye, he must learn Prajna Paramita. If a bodhisattva wants to listen to the proper dharma preached by Buddhas as many as the number of sands in the Ganges River in the ten directions with divine ear, he must learn Prajna Paramita.” (50)


    The Large Sutra on PrajnaparamitaVol.346, Taisho, says,

    Good Manifestation, if the bodhisattva can practice such deep Prajna Paramitas, then he can consummate the Four Noble Truths of Suffering, Accumulation, Extinction and Bodhi in a short time. “Good Manifestation, if the bodhisattva can practice such deep Prajna Paramitas, then he can consummate the four dhyanas, the four unlimited hearts and the four formless dhyanas in a short time. Good Manifestation, if the bodhisattva can practice such deep Prajna Paramitas, then he can consummate the eight kinds of liberation, the eight extraordinary stages, the samdhi of the nine degrees, and the ten totally pervasive concentrations in a short time. Good Manifestation, if the bodhisattva can practice such deep Prajna Paramitas, then he can consummate the four stations of mindfulness, the four kinds of correct elimination, the four bases of divine power, the five roots of goodness, the five powers, the seven branches of enlightenment, and the eightfold holy path in a short time.” (51)


    The above texts tell us, practicing the six paramitas can attain divine powers or develop the potential powers. Why the six paramitas are emphasized again and again in many Buddhist sutras? Buddhist sutras have given us the reason. I think that the six paramitas and myriad practices are exchange process of spiritual energies between our spirits and all the other spirits around us. Just as the body grows from a fertilized ovum into a mature living being, the spirit is kept growing too. Here adulthood does not mean a fully developed spirit, but the beginning of unification with greater spirits of Buddhas and Bodhisattvas.


    What are the manifestations of divine powers? Are divine powers kinds of supernatural powers or the potentials of our cells? All sentient beings have Buddha-nature, in other words, we all have the potential to attain Buddhahood. Then are there any potential powers within our body? Will the powers be bound to be aroused through esoteric and exoteric Buddhist practices?


    If we have such potentials, then we can attain the result through proper practice. But why such potential powers are latent among most of the practicers nowadays? It relates to the watching of precepts. Precept is the most proper aid to transform afflictions into Bodhi and the necessary way to discover the potentials within us.


    The Buddha attained Buddhahood through the practice in human world, and human body is the foundation of practice. So we must give thought to human physiology, anatomy, genetics and other theories to learn the structure of human body, moreover, these theories can explain Buddhist dharma in a way.


    Modern biology genetics technology has made considerable progress, according to recent biological clone technology, a single individual cell can be cloned into an entire new organisms. We can infer from this theory every cell can be cloned into a new life, thus there are immeasurable lives, and the new lives can be cloned too. So it is easy to understand “Buddhas and bodhisattvas permeate in the space like dense sesame seeds”. Take single cell as an example, all the functions of single cell must be carried out by the cell independently.  According to theory of embryo development, a single fertilized ovum reproduces into a new cell by division; all the cells are genetically identical, no matter a cell divides into what kind of functions, the homogeny of genetic genes decide the similarity of the cells’ function. This can be understood as the theoretical foundation for divine powers.

     

    F. Assumptions for Divine Powers from the View of Modern Science and Philosophy


    According to natural science research on biological phenomena, we can adopt the view that life evolved from single cells. A single cell must complete all the life functions independently, such as vision, sound, smell, taste, touch, or movement and so on. Along with the process from single cell into multi-cell, organs began to differentiate; functional activities of life are differentiated among cells. Some of the cells responsible for color (sense of sight), some of the cells responsible for sound (sense of hearing), some of the cells responsible for scent (sense of smell), some of the cells responsible for taste (sense of taste), some of the cells responsible for touch (sense of feeling), there are other cells are responsible for movement. Of course, it is a long history to complete the process. To a multi-cell stage, owing to the function differentiation of cells, the cells responsible for color "forget" the functions of hearing, smell, taste, feeling and movement, the cells responsible for hearing "forget" the functions of color, smell, taste, feeling and movement, the cells responsible for smell "forget" the functions of color, hearing, taste, feeling and movement, the cells responsible for taste "forget" the functions of color, hearing, smell, feeling and movement, the cells responsible for feeling "forget" the functions of color, hearing, smell, taste and movement, the cells responsible for feeling "forget" the functions of color, hearing, smell, feeling and movement. However, the cells originate from the same progenitor cell, just like all our body cells develop from an independent fertilized ovum, although the functions have been differentiated, the genetic genes are the same. Therefore, we can assume that all the functions exist equally in each cell’s genetic gene, but some irrelevant functions of the genes work no longer, or have been forgotten. In today’s advanced life stage, color cells are just responsible for the sense of color, hearing cells are just responsible for the sense of hearing, smell cells are just responsible for the sense of smell, taste cells are just responsible for the sense of taste, feeling cells are just responsible for the sense of feeling, motor cells are just responsible for the sense of movement, and so on. However, color cells "forget" the functions of hearing, smell, taste, feeling and movement, hearing cells "forget" the functions of color, smell, taste, feeling and movement, smell cells "forget" the functions of color, hearing, taste, feeling and movement, taste cells "forget" the functions of color, hearing, smell, feeling and movement, feeling cells "forget" the functions of color, hearing, smell, taste and movement, motor cells "forget" the functions of color, hearing, smell, taste and feeling.


    Although the functions of a cell have reduced into single function, but the genetic genes in any cells still contain the secret “memory” of other functions. For example, color cells differentiate color, but they still have the forgotten functions, if the memory is aroused, the color cells can still have the functions of hearing, smelling, tasting, feeling and movement; bone cells have the function of fixing, if the memory is aroused, they can still have the functions of movement and all the other “forgotten functions; motor cells can have the functions of fixing, feeling, and transmission of neural information; similarly, other cells can restore the “forgotten” functions caused by differentiation.


    Nevertheless, the assumption is reasonable in theory. If the assumption is true, then divine powers should be latent abilities. Since ordinary people don’t have divine powers, we can say that not all of the potentials of human cells have been revealed. All activities of daily life are only a very small part of human potentials. The unrevealed instincts are called “potentials”. So, divine powers are the “potentials” of human being as well as all the other living beings, in other words, “potentials” of all sentient beings.


    Divine powers are only potentials, the genes’ holo-information in various cells are equal, which decides the holo-information character of divine powers.


    Thus, divine powers are not “supernatural” power, the divine powers recorded in Buddhist sutras are not fables. Divine powers are no longer mysterious, or reckoned as supernatural powers, but potentials.


    However, why we don’t have divine powers, or show the latent abilities?


    This is because ignorant illusions, or the three intoxications, namely, covetousness, hatred and stupidity have covered up our clear nature, but we don’t realize it. Why our ancient ancestors can predict the coming disasters in advance? Why animals can have precautions before earthquake? In fact, it is all the same. Divine powers are not supernatural powers but potentials; this is the self-originated character of divine power. Buddhist sutras emphasize precepts, the six paramitas and myriad practices, the four immeasurables of benevolence, compassion, rejoicing and freedom, and so on. In other words, we must exchange positive and kind information with the outside environment in order to discover our potentials. It is just like an atom: the electronics around the nucleus must accept extra energy to realize the high up-conversion. Treasure buried under the ground must be excavated to be revealed, and must be sifted and refined to show all the peculiarities of the treasure. It is similar to the development of human potentials.


    Modern genetic technology can develop single cell into a new individual, here we leave ethics out of account, and then we can clone a “new man” out of a human somatic cell in theory. The number of human body's cells should be an astronomical figure, suppose there are 1020 human cells, then we can clone 1020 new individuals, each new individual can clone 1020 new individuals……According modern scientific theory, it is reasonable that the avatars of Buddhas and Bodhisattvas can appear in the three thousand great thousand world systems. This is also the manifestation of holo-information of human body as well as “a dust mote contains the three thousand great thousand world systems, and a three thousand great thousand world systems enters into a dust mote”.


    However, theories are not practices; Buddha’s dharma teachings are the guide for the practice of truth and the proper way to develop sentient beings’ potentials. A practicer can complete his knowledge and practice of “precepts, dhyana and wisdom” and attain divine powers through learning, thinking and practicing the Tripitaka of Sutra, Vinaya and Abhidhamma.


    Buddhism is a profound system of holo-information. Based on a thorough understanding and knowledge of the truth in the universe, Buddha Sakyamuni attained Buddhahood.


    How can we let cells remember the forgotten functions? Can we restore the forgotten functions of cells? The answer is yes, we can. Buddha Sakyamuni replied the two questions through his practice.


    Buddha Sakyamuni made all his efforts, developed all the potentials of the cells, and attained all kinds of divine powers. Practices seem like monotonous arduous activities, such as reciting sutras, meditation and so on, but these are only surface phenomena. The significance of practice lies in accumulation of positive and healthy spiritual energies. When the accumulation reaches to certain levels, the potentials or divine powers are revealed. Precepts are emphasized in Buddhist practice, if there are no precepts, Buddha dharma will also vanish. (Buddhist records are not fictional historical stories.) In the same way, we can explain why human body can have “super functions”. In fact, they are not “super functions”, but the potentials of human body.


    We can also conclude, everything can be changed and all living beings can attain Buddhahood. The way is to practice. If we read a lot of Buddhist sutras and practice properly, maybe we can reap abundant benefits.

     

    . Holo-Meaning of Precepts

    There is a precept of not killing beings in Buddhist vinaya, which has been expounded in sutras and sastras. The precept is out of sympathy. Since all sentient beings can attain Buddhahood, killing beings and eating them are not different from killing the Buddha or wounding the Buddha’s body. Not to kill beings is to cultivate our compassion and benevolence.


    We can also explain the precept theoretically from the view that all living beings are sentient; many modern biology experiments have proved it basically. We must know the connotation of “life” contains two meaning: one is body, anther is spirit. Spirit can be seen as the spiritual body. Can the killed one own grateful or glad feelings towards the killer? Of course not. The killed animals are sure to be filled with fear, anger, hatred and so on. These negative spiritual energies are accumulated in the eaters body.


    The basic propositions of philosophy have confirmed the interaction between matters and spirits. When the negative spiritual energies are accumulated to a certain level, the information energies will certainly retroact to the eater’s body. The damage in the body results in behavior disorder, and then disasters. Examples in our life can be seen everywhere. The more benevolent parts we have on our minds, the more opportunities we have to receive positive spiritual energies, vice versa. To treat all sentient beings with a benevolent heart is the best way to protect ourselves and the basic way to protect our life of wisdom. There is a well-done ancient couplet, “Sincerity is the supreme good and cannot be used up; sowing kindness in the heart land will support us in the whole life”. In everyday life, people often say, “Wine and meats pass through the intestines, but Buddha remains in the heart." In fact, wine and meat cannot pass through the intestines easily, and will lead to afflictions in the end.


    The Mitsugonin Confession says, We confess all the sins cause by delusions since the beginningless past, the body, speech and mind have often been in perversive states, and done measureless unwholesome actions. These words can be easily understood literally. “We” experience birth, age, illness and death in life, then what is “the beginningless past”? Here “the beginningless past” refers to the beginningless kalpa, or the endless past time, the concept is in relation to the spiritual body, the soul, not just the corporeal body. The soul carries all the “sins” in the past; in other words, the soul carries all the spiritual information energies accumulated in the six destines. Those negative energies constitute “the ignorance”, “extinguishing the ignorance” is to refine all these energies. Now that we carry measureless negative spiritual energies in this life, it is our strenuous task to refine them. We must refine or offset the negative energies, and strengthen the positive energies so as to develop our “potentials”. This is just the holo-meaning of precepts, six paramitas and myriad practices.


    The holo-meaning of precept is the same with the reason of not killing. So keeping precepts is crucial to a practicer. Those who despise or breach the precepts can barely accomplish achievements. Even if there are a few extreme cases, the practicers have entered into the evil realm, not Bodhiyana. One must practice the six paramitas and myriad practices in order to attain a clear heart. Only when a practicer’s heart is clear, can everything become expedient dharma gate. Without a clear heart, it is no different from talking fantastic nonsense.

     

    . Assumptions for Divine Blessings of Tri-guhya

    Practicing strictly according to the requirements of esoteric Buddhism will certainly develop the practicer’s latent abilities; yoga of Tri-guhya is the necessary means to develop the six divine powers. If a practicer confines himself to understanding the doctrines and practices of esoteric Buddhism, it is apparently not enough. Practicing is the major issue of esoteric Buddhist learning. As far as practicing is concerned, everyday Buddhist activities are not enough, one must carry out the four immeasurable practices in every quarters of life and use wisdom every day, thus we are progressing on the way to Buddhahood. According to yoga practice of Tri-guhya, the running of jing luo is a proper dharma gate.

    What is the holo-meaning of jing luo (or the holo-meaning of yoga)? Based on European and American scientists’ studies, some researchers conclude jing luo are just tiny crystals. It is hard for a practicer nurtured by eastern philosophy to accept the conclusion. If we divide our bodies into two parts, corporeal bodies and spirits, in other words, material and spiritual parts, and assume jing luo is the critical state between the material and spiritual parts of human life, thus the holo-meaning of mudra is easy to understand. Yoga visualisation can be understood as a way to realize the transformation between materials and spirits.


    Thus we can see that if we practice diligently, then attaining Buddhahood in this life is not far off.


    Japanese famous Dr. Masaru Emot has devoted himself to the study of crystallization of water molecules; his research findings are very significant. When water droplets are stimulated by various stimuli such as audio, images, words and even the stimulation of ideas, the frozen crystals are very interesting. Perhaps we can use the research results to explain the phenomena of divine powers and incorruptible bodies.

    Sanskrit dharani is Buddha's language. What kinds of effect can Sanskrit words bring to us? Buddha preached the dharma with one perfect sound, and living beings could be enlightened according to their different varieties. Buddha’s languages are full of compassion, if we recite them properly, will the water molecules within our body be changed? According to the research findings of Dr. Masaru Emot, the answer is positive. Similarly all the other organisms in our bodies can be transformed positively.


    What kind of impacts can divine blessings of Tri-guhya have on an esoteric practicer? What kind of impacts can such practices have on cells, nerves, meridians and so on? If we cannot explain these questions properly, then today’s Buddhism is reduced to totally discourse without reasoned and adequate explanations.


    As far as esoteric Buddhist research is concerned, how to get along the researches? Sheer archaeological or bibliographic studies may have some significance; however, most of these conclusions are accumulation of historical and Buddhist knowledge. If these research findings are lack of Buddhist wisdom, then they are no better than producing wastes. The fruit of esoteric Buddhism can only be attained by practice, not empty talks.


    Divine blessing of Tri-guhya contains two meanings, first, “yoga of Tri-guhya”, second, “blessing of three powers”. “Yoga of Tri-guhya” refers to the mysterious concordance between the body, speech and mind of the practicer and those of the holy one. Three powers refer to the power of the dharma realm, Buddha, and the practicer.


    Mr. Masaru Emot’s serials of research on water crystals are important for esoteric Buddhist practicer. Various stimuli are directed at water droplets, these stimuli can be roughly classified into positive and negative. The so-called positive stimuli include "love", "care", "happiness," "gratitude”, "praise"; the negative stimuli include "hate," "unconcerned," "sad," " treachery," "curse", etc. The structures of water crystals stimulated by positive information are regular and beautiful; on the contrary, those stimulated by negative information are irregular and disorderly (figure 5).


    In 1987, the French scientist Jacques Benveniste, M.D. published an astonishing research paper in Nature, which indicated that water has memory; his findings caused substantial oppositions in the scientific community. Japanese Masaru Emoto found the uniqueness of snowflakes (There was no two identical snowflakes among billion of snowflakes appeared around the world), so he began to study water crystals of different sources.


    He placed waters into ordinary refrigerators, then photographed the crystals with powerful microscope (refer to his work, Water Knows the Answers). The photographs show that natural water’s crystals are very beautiful, while the crystals of city water and polluted water are ugly, some even cannot form crystals.


    The crystals of city waters fetched from Paris, London, Tokyo, Rome, Venice, Bangkok and Macao were all obscure, dim, distorted and irregular, and these images cannot make people feel good.


    It was the same with the water fetched from Hongkong. While the crystals of city waters fetched from Washington, Vancouver, Bern (Switzerland's capital) were symmetrical and beautiful with clear lines.


    The crystals of waters fetched from Antarctica, springs in various continents and underground waters in the wilderness are as fascinating as jewels, giving off delightful information.


    Further study found that the water became beautiful after listening beautiful music, and became distorted and ugly after listening noisy and weary music. Waters blessed by masters became beautiful. Place pictures of beautiful scenery or blessing words before water, the crystals became beautiful. Place cursed words before water, the crystals became distorted and ugly.


    Waters that had heard Beethoven's "Pastoral Symphony" had beautiful and orderly crystals just like the bright melody. Waters that had heard Korean folk song "Arirang", had crystals that seem like very sad (the song describes the sorrows of departing lovers). Waters that had heard Elvis Presley’s "Heartbreak Hotel" had crystals with the shape of a broken heart, some parts even dropped down. After hearing the strong rhythm of Brazilian music, the crystals formed delicate shapes of stars. After hearing Austrian folk song, "Tyrol's Lullaby", the crystals seem like embracing a baby. After hearing Tibetan chanting, the complicated crystals tangled with each other and formed a strong shape just like mandalas (patterns with energies) depicted in Tibetan scriptures. The most interesting two photos are crystals that seem like dancing in pairs and couples, the water had heard Argentine tango music. On the contrary, water that had heard some heavy metal music had scattered crystals like chaos, which were unbearable just like the outrageous and vulgar words of the song.


    What would happen if the water read words? They put the same amount of water into bottles, then wrote different words on papers and pasted them on bottles with the words inward, thus let the waters “read” them, the results are as follows:


    Waters with words of “thanks” formed beautiful hexagons, while waters pasted with words of “bastard” seemed like chaos just like those crystals that had heard heavy metal music. The crystals pasted with “Let’s do it together” were symmetrical, while water pasted with “Do it” were scattered and cannot form crystals. Waters pasted with “thanks” in different foreign languages formed different crystals, but all seemed translucent, symmetrical and beautiful; while waters pasted with “bastard”, “fool” and so on cannot form crystals. The crystals pasted with “fly into a rage, kill you” even appeared a child being bullied. Crystals pasted with “wisdom” in Japanese, English and German were all upright and hollow in the center, presented the shape of hexagons. Water pasted with “angel” formed a beautiful small halo; while water pasted with “devil” formed a black protuberance full of offensive.


    How are the waters like after being praised or cursed? The research group invited some pupils to speak to waters in bottles. As the result, waters heard “so cute” formed lovely patterns; waters heard “bastard” were dim and obscure, and couldn’t form crystals. Waters heard “You’re so beautiful” for one time had delicate crystals; those constantly heard the sentence had more symmetrical crystals. However, waters that were put aside and lacked cares had scattered poor crystals.


    Dr. Masaru Emoto believes the so called lifeless thing are not “dead”, they have “sense” (able to see, hear and read), “thought”(able to analyze), and “memory”, although ordinary people reckon water as “dead thing”.  Hence we can see all things are exchanging energies in each second. Composer and performer threw their energies into the music, then music worked as carrier and transmitted the energies to the water, the water could receive, decode and keep the information (52).


    Ideas are energies and can be transmitted and received, and will certainly impact the receivers of all kinds (including “dead” things). In the past, the metaphysics (metaphysical) theory was regarded as abstract concepts or religious beliefs, now it is proved by specific and objective means and revealed.


    Any positive ideas can give off information of truth, goodness and beauty, and make things better. From these experiments, we can see that love ("I love you") and gratitude ("I’m grateful") are the most powerful positive forces (positive energies) in the world.

    If so for water, then everything in the universe including the lifeless things all have such nature according to our universal holo-information theory. As far as human life is concerned, human life includes not only material structures but also spirit, the changes of material energies are not enough to explain Dr. Masaru Emoto’s research. To explain his study completely, we must introduce the concept of spiritual information energy”.


    Dharanis are the language of Buddha and bodhisattva in yoga of Tri-guhya, represent the spiritual energies of benevolence, compassion, rejoicing, freedom and six paramitas. Mudras are motions of Buddha and bodhisattva, and represent Buddha’s cause. Visualizing the holy one is to accord the practicer with Buddha and bodhisattvas. Practicing continuously in this way, positive changes will happen on the corporeal organism. Like carbon atoms, disordered atoms constitute carbon, senior orderly arrangements constitute graphite, and the most perfect crystal structure of carbon will produce diamonds. Similarly, a practicer’s body organism before practicing is the same with ordinary people, and can attain the state of pratyeka-buddha, arhat, and at last Buddhahood. It is so not only for esoteric Buddhist practice but also for exoteric Buddhist practice. The above researches also prove esoteric Buddhism is superior to exoteric Buddhism. However, if a practice only knows esoteric Buddhism’s transcendence over exoteric Buddhism, but does not practice six paramitas and myriad practices, or benevolence, compassion, rejoicing and freedom, then he cannot have a clear heart. Without a clear heart, there are no expedient dharma gates at all. Even if he practices esoteric Buddhism every day, he can achieve nothing. With a clear heart, all dharma gates are expedient dharma gates; with a clear heart, one can accomplish achievements through esoteric Buddhist practices more easily. Talking big about Buddhist teachings without precepts and proper practice, attaining Buddhahood is a mere dream.

     

    . Assumptions for Maha Incredible Phenomena


    Buddhist practice is accompanied by a series of Maha incredible phenomena, such as incorruptible body, rainbow body, holy relics and so on, they are natural phenomena or supernatural phenomena? There are no relevant explanations according to the Buddhist researches so far.


    Let’s take rainbow body as an example, when the practicer entered into nirvana, his body evaporated into lights, heat and aroma. It is indeed incredible. Holy relics can be understood as the outcomes of the critical state between the material state and spiritual state of human body.


    What are maha incredible phenomena? From the outlook of holo-philosophical science, it seems easy to understand. Since modern science is biased and lacks study on spiritual factors, so biased theories cannot explain the above maha incredible phenomena. Buddhism can entirely cover the modern holo-philosophy and holo-science system; all problems can be solved naturally with these recognitions. Same method cannot be applied in the study of spirit. Positivistic approach can only apply to material study; spiritual study must rely on our "heart".


    Maha incredible phenomena are also called as supernatural phenomena, which indicate things or phenomena that transcend the existent knowledge of humankind, or cannot be explained by theories of modern science and philosophy, such as “incorruptible body”, “sariras”, “divine powers”, “the Samadhi of Light”, “cosmic tunnel”, “spontaneous human combustion“, etc.


    It is impossible to adopt the same method in the researches of both material and spirit. The positivist method can only be applied to material research; spiritual research must be based on our “mind”.


    Here we will not expound supernatural phenomena, the above analysis, assumptions and examples, are sufficient to illustrate the limitation of modern science and philosophy as well as the importance of introducing spiritual concept.


    These phenomena cannot be explained by imperfect modern science and philosophy and are by no means supernatural. The reason why modern science and philosophy are not complete lies in their ignorance of spirit and partial emphasis on material. Material and spirit exist in a relative unity, they rely on each other and influent each other and they can also change into each other. However, modern science and philosophy emphasize positive research of matters, and totally neglect the impacts and effects of spiritual factors.

     

    Summary

    Kobo Daishi Kukai actively practiced esoteric Buddhism, the four measureless hearts of benevolence, compassion, rejoicing and freedom, as well as the six paramitas and myriad practices, and finally he left an incorruptible body. The incorruptible body is a proof of his Buddhist achievement and is more vivid and credible than empty talkings.


    Modern people accept western science, and have gradually taken the path of material positivism, thus Buddhist and esoteric Buddhist researches seem very strange, and the impacts of spirit are nearly ignored completely. However, spiritual factor is very important in Buddhist practice. While spiritual approaches are never involved in their research or only limited to language analysis and discourses. Western science is not perfect, the perfect science or philosophy is Buddhist dharma, which combines ideally the rational outlooks of both materialism and idealism, thus embodies the truth of holo-information.


    The universe can be divided into concrete universe and empty universe, namely material and spiritual ones, they’re a united whole and cannot be separated. The concrete universe is the so called “the visible” in Buddhism, empty universe is the spirits of Buddhas and bodhisattvas. All the so called “supernatural” phenomena all happened in the critical state between concrete universe and empty universe. Divine powers are the latent abilities or potentials of all living beings. The yoga practice of Tri-guhya is similar to the process that carbon atoms change from disordered arrangement into ordered arrangement. All Buddhist practices are continuous exchanges of spiritual energies with the external environment.


    The holo-meaning of precepts is to guarantee the practicer to absorb positive spiritual energies ceaselessly.

     





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